Recording: Amadeus Quartet (Norbert Brainin, 1st Violin; Siegmund Nissel, 2nd violin; Peter Schidlof, viola; Martin Lovett, cello) with Cecil Aronowitz, 2nd Viola; William Pleeth, 2nd Cello [DG 419 875-2]
Published 1866.

The G-major Sextet, almost exactly contemporary to the Piano Quintet, is a considerably more sophisticated and complex work than the Sextet in B-flat, Op. 18.  While such a comparison should not diminish the beauty and nobility of the much-loved earlier piece, the G-major is entirely on another level in terms of form, harmony, and counterpoint.  The richness of the string sonority is unrivaled in Brahms’s chamber-music output.  The first movement, in triple time like that of Op. 18, is extremely rich in content; indeed, its 605 measures are the second highest count of any Brahms instrumental or vocal movement, behind only the early E-flat-minor Scherzo for solo piano, Op. 4 (and Rinaldo excepted).  From the outset, the home key is undermined by half-step motion, borrowings from the minor key, and a temporary pivot to the foreign key of E-flat.  The initial buzzing half-step in the first viola pervades much of the movement.  The end of the exposition contains an unusually literal biographical reference.  Brahms had a passionate relationship with Agathe von Siebold, daughter of a professor in Göttingen, and was even engaged to her in 1859.  In an strange mixture of anxiety and pride, Brahms broke off the engagement.  At the climax of the second theme, Brahms memorialized this tumultuous episode by musically spelling Agathe’s name.  In German notation, B-natural is called H, so the sequence A-G-A-B-E is actually A-G-A-H-E.  Brahms even included the T by placing its closest musical equivalent D in harmony with the B (H).  He constructed the succeeding music so that the AGA(T)HE cipher can also appear on its original pitches when the music is transposed in the recapitulation.  The huge chromatic descent over tremolos at the end of the development section is also notable.  Brahms placed the G-minor scherzo movement second.  The stately duple-meter piece is based on the opening bars of the A-minor gavotte from a series of unpublished neo-baroque keyboard dances written in the 1850s.  The gavotte’s companion pieces, the A-major sarabande and gavotte, would later provide the basis for the middle movement of the F-major Quintet, Op. 88.  The “Presto giocoso” trio section provides an extreme contrast, but the transition back to the scherzo is especially artful.  As in Op. 18, the slow movement is a theme and variations in the relative minor key (in this case E).  Brahms introduces fugal counterpoint in the third and fourth variations, similar in style to the finale of the contemporary E-minor Cello Sonata, Op. 38.  The slow final variation and the exquisite coda are in serene major.  The finale, in compound triple time (9/8), utilizes artful tremolo effects that are placed in contrast with a more soulful, yearning theme.  It is a concise, but satisfying closing movement.  The Sextet has been called a spiritual successor to Schubert’s final Quartet in G major and his monumental Quintet in C major.  Seven years later, Brahms’s next publications for strings alone would be two works in that most hallowed genre, the quartet.

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck)

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition [monochrome] from the University of Michigan)
ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (From Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke)

1st Movement: Allegro non troppo (Sonata-Allegro form). G MAJOR, 3/4 time
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1.  The first viola starts, very quietly, with a murmuring, almost buzzing oscillation on a half-step, the keynote and the “leading tone.”  This continues as a background through the entire first two large phrases of the first theme.  After two measures, the first violin begins its arching melody, mezza voce.  The second violin and second viola enter on long notes, and the second cello plucks a low G.  The first violin reaches upward, and strikingly emphasizes notes borrowed from the minor as it ascends (two fifths separated by a half-step).  The first cello enters in response, reversing the violin motion with a downward leap. 
0:07 [m. 7]--The first violin continues its arching figures, using the minor-key notes to veer toward E-flat major, but then it just as suddenly re-asserts the the home key of G, which seems especially slippery despite anchoring plucked “dominant” notes in the second cello.  After two upward stretches, the second reaching higher, there is a series of downward leaps of a fifth or fourth, alternating between the home keynote G and the “dominant” note D.  These leaps are passed from the first violin to first cello, then second violin and viola, and finally second cello.
0:18 [m. 17]--The first violin begins a second statement, but this time it reaches higher, even more strongly suggesting the key of E-flat by using that note as the top pitch.  Because the line has reached higher, it must turn back down, which it does on a syncopated note held across a bar line.  The first cello adds a second downward leaping response before the original one.  The entire passage is lengthened by two bars.
0:25 [m. 23]--The instruments have all again reached the same point as at 0:07 [m. 7], but the first violin has held another note over a bar line.  The initial arch and the first upward stretch are the same as before, but the second upward stretch is placed higher.  It uses the same pitches (A and D), but now has higher pivot and top notes.  The downward leaps follow in the same instrument sequence as before, but the orientation of the alternation between G and D is reversed.  The second cello unexpectedly changes its leap to a downward half-step, and the continual first viola murmur finally ceases.
0:36 [m. 33]--The first instruments all join in unison on a downward-arching arpeggio that suddenly makes a striking turn to B major.  The second instruments support this with a held F-sharp, the second cello joining the arpeggio after two measures with an even lower octave.  The other second instruments still hold long notes.  Another arching arpeggios immediately follows, this time on E major.  Here, the second viola and first cello switch places, with the former joining the arpeggio and the latter holding long notes.
0:45 [m. 41]--The instruments all join in harmony, with the first cello marking downbeats, and turn back to G major.  After a descent, the harmonies become syncopated, held over bar lines four times.  They then descend together again.  Finally, the first violin plays the familiar murmuring half-step, immediately passing it to the second violin leading into the next statement of the theme.
0:58 [m. 53]--The first cello presents a full statement of the theme’s opening phrase as previously played by the first violin.  Against this, the first violin plays the murmuring half-steps on the “dominant” note and its leading tone, briefly joined an octave lower by the second violin, but unlike the previous first viola murmur, the half-steps now gradually work their way downward.  The other instruments provide harmonic support. 
1:03 [m. 57]--At the point of the arching figures and upward stretches corresponding to 0:07 and 0:25 [m.7 and m. 23], the first violin, playing sweeping, highly decorative arpeggios, alternates with the second violin on the murmuring half-step figures.  The second cello again plucks isolated bass downbeats.  The downward leaps follow the previous pitch pattern, now passed from first cello to the two violas, and then second cello.  Above the leaps, the two violins both play the murmuring half-steps in alternation, now remaining on the level of the “dominant” note, but working to higher octave levels.
1:13 [m. 67]--The first cello continues with the second large phrase with the higher reach and stronger suggestion of E-flat.  The violins continue on the murmuring figures.  The second violin quickly drops out, and the first works downward with the murmuring motion as it had before.  The violas and second cello provide a background in long notes as before.  The statement follows the previous violin pattern up until the first upward stretch.  At this point, the violins again alternate decorative arpeggios in the first with murmuring motion in the second.
1:24 [m. 77]--The first cello stalls, repeating the first upward stretch on the same pitch level with one change on the bottom note.  It then slowly works upward with two more similar stretches.  The violins continue their alternation, and the second cello plucks the “dominant” note.  These stretching motions are then passed to the first violin, harmonized by the second violin and the two violas.  The murmuring motion is passed to the two cellos in alternation, remaining on the “dominant” level.  There is a strong buildup, the first real rise above a piano level.  There are four stretching patterns in these upper instruments, working steadily higher as the volume rapidly builds to forte
1:38 [m. 91]--Finally, the first violin reaches a high “leading tone” and repeats it in syncopation with notes held over three bar lines.  The second violin, violas, and first cello either harmonize the first violin syncopation or emphasize the downbeat with strong descending arpeggios.  Finally, the first violin re-establishes the downbeat in preparation for a very strong cadence.  At the same time, the cellos and second viola take over the syncopation from the first violin in a forceful descent toward the cadence.
1:42 [m. 95]--Transition.  At the cadence, the first cello emerges with a feverish descent in repeated notes (each melodic note reiterated twice).  Above it, the second violin, first violin, first viola, and second viola enter in quasi-imitation (without the reiterations) on syncopated notes held over bar lines.  The instruments quickly move to a cadence on the “dominant” key, D major.  From that cadence, the first viola leads a similar sequence with the descent in reiterated notes.  Second violin, first violin, first cello, and second viola enter in succession.  This time, they all arrive one more level up the circle of fifths, on A.  The reiterations are briefly passed to the second viola.  The second cello is absent from the entire passage.
1:57 [m. 111]--The reiterated notes pass back to the first viola.  The violins come in above it, and the second cello finally joins the first with bass support.  The music seems to want to move up one more level, to E (minor), but it continues to stall on A.  The reiterations pass to the second violin with the first cello and first viola playing the descents.  There is another reiteration of the half-close on A, suggesting E minor.
2:04 [m. 119]--The volume is suddenly hushed.  At this point, the reiterated notes pass to the second viola, which maintains them until the onset of Theme 2.  Throughout, it is doubled below (in non-reiterated notes) by the second cello.  The patterns take on an oscillating quality.  Against this, the remaining four instruments play a series of chord patterns, with downbeat chords followed in the next measure by chords on the heavily emphasized middle beat.  These, in turn, lean into the next downbeat chord.  After A is again emphasized, the patterns leap up to D, then move up by step to E and F-sharp. 
2:12 [m. 127]--At this point, the off-beat chords stop, and the sustained harmonies slide down, then leap back up.  The volume rapidly builds.  The first cello drops out.  The note A and its chord are now established as the “dominant” of D major, the key of the second theme.  D major is itself the “dominant” of the home key, G major.  The first cello has a plucked note at the high point as a huge arrival on D major is prepared for the entry of Theme 2.
2:19 [m. 135]--Theme 2 (D major).  The refreshing, buoyant melody is played by first cello, beginning with an upbeat.  The first viola takes over the oscillating motion, which now consists of murmuring half-steps as well as wider skips and leaps.  The second viola and second violin provide smooth lines of counterpoint while the second cello marks the downbeats with firm plucked notes.  After a full statement of the eight-measure phrase, the first violin (who has been taking a brief break), joins the first cello an octave above for a second statement of the phrase.  The first violin even adds an ornamental turn in the first full measure.
2:34 [m. 151]--The theme is now fragmented.  Interrupting the cadence, the first cello starts the theme again, at a quieter level, turning to D minor.  After two measures, the first violin comes in to double the cello and pivots to F major.  Both statements add ornamental turns to the head of the theme.  After this, the second cello abandons its plucked notes and takes the bow.  The first viola breaks its oscillation.  The first violin emerges from the thematic fragment, steadily working by half-step, building in volume, and becoming syncopated, holding notes over bar lines.  The second violin and first cello play a counterpoint in octaves, the first viola doubles the first violin an octave below, the second viola plays heavily syncopated repeated notes, and the second cello continues to mark the bass, also with a chromatic ascent.  After two quick surges, the first violin decorates its ascent with skips to sighing two-note descents.
2:44 [m. 161]--The first violin and first viola reach a high B and stall there.  The second violin and viola also stall.  The second cello speeds up and continues its chromatic bass ascent, now joined an octave above by the first cello.  After two syncopated reiterations of the high B, at the climax, the first violin and first viola launch into the famous “AGA(T)HE” cipher, beginning on the upbeat with the A.  H is B-natural in German notation.  The second violin and first cello play a strong syncopated D (a substitute for T) against the B (H).  The second viola moves to plucked chords, and the second cello also marks the half-close of the quotation with plucked notes.  The figure is twice reiterated, unchanged, for a total of three full statements.
2:52 [m. 169]--The violins, in thirds, trail downward after the “Agathe” statements.  Then, suddenly, the cellos in octaves state the figure one more time, with the second moving away on the E.  The upper instruments enter in syncopation above the cellos.  There is a strong turn toward A major, and indeed, the “Agathe” figure is now stated in that key, transposed up a fifth and no longer outlining the name.  The scoring is the same, but the second viola and first cello switch places.  It is only stated once before the violins have the same downward trail in thirds and the cellos loudly enter with the figure in octaves again.
3:03 [m. 180]--The violins enter in syncopation again, but now they are calm and usher in a new closing phrase.  The violas  follow after them, inverting their direction, and the cellos provide long supporting bass notes in wide harmonies.  D major is quickly re-asserted.  Two short rising lines are followed by a wide arpeggio that again makes a strong hint at A major.  This arpeggio makes a powerful buildup to a high A.  It then quickly descends, moving toward a cadence in D.  At the top of the arpeggio, the cellos move away from long notes to dovetailing arpeggios in detached notes.  The satisfying cadence only really arrives in the bass, as the first violin and first viola interrupt it to begin the brief closing material.
3:14 [m. 191]--Closing material.  It is all based on variations of the “Agathe” figure.  The cadence is interrupted by another sudden diminishing of volume.  The first viola leads, imitated by the first violin, with the second viola and the two cellos following in turn with trailing lines of counterpoint.  A half-close is reached. 
3:23 [m. 199]--Interrupting the half-close, the pattern begins again an octave higher, with the second violin taking over for the first viola and the latter for second viola.  There is a faster and higher upward reach than before.  It once again builds in volume, then descends in both volume and pitch to a luxuriantly extended cadence, accompanied by cello arpeggios, with mild chromatic motion on the way.  The cadence is reached in full, but it immediately merges with the transition to the repeat.  The first four measures of this are not marked as part of the first ending.  The second violin, still in D, turns to the familiar murmuring motion from the opening.  The first violin and second viola, in turn, intone the opening gesture from Theme 1, stated a fifth higher than usual.
3:43 [m. 217a]--First ending.  The second violin continues to murmur.  The first violin plays the opening of Theme 1, but makes a downward turn after the first minor-key inflection, which emphasizes the minor key character.  It is imitated halfway through by the second viola, which is in turn followed by the first viola another octave lower.  Finally, the first cello, with an upward leap and slide, initiates the motion back to G major, with the second cello setting up the bass motion.  The second violin murmur changes to a whole step to help facilitate the harmonic motion. 
3:57 [m. 229a (m. 1)]--The last two measures of the first ending (mm. 229a-230a), which is an exceptionally long 14 measures) correspond to mm. 1-2.  The murmur is passed from second violin to first viola at the original level, with the second viola and the cellos confirming the bass motion back to G.  The repeat sign indicates a jump back to m. 3, where Theme 1 proceeds as at the beginning.
4:04 [m. 7]--Continuation of the first statement establishing strong emphasis on E-flat, as at 0:07.
4:15 [m. 17]--Second statement reaching higher, as at 0:18.
4:22 [m. 23]--Continuation of second statement, as at 0:25.
4:33 [m. 33]--B-major and E-major arpeggios, as at 0:36.
4:42 [m. 41]--Turn back to G major with syncopated harmonies, as at 0:45.
4:55 [m. 53]--Cello statement of Theme 1 with murmuring motion winding downward, as at 0:58.
4:59 [m. 57]--Continuation of theme with violin decorations and arpeggios, as at 1:03.
5:09 [m. 67]--Cello statement of second large phrase, as at 1:13.
5:19 [m. 77]--Stall of thematic statement and strong buildup, as at 1:24.
5:33 [m. 91]--Syncopated harmonies and strong cadence, as at 1:38.
5:37 [m. 95]--Transition.  Feverish cello and viola descents, then motion to D and A, as at 1:42.
5:52 [m. 111]--Reiterated notes in first viola and suggestion of E minor, as at 1:57.
6:00 [m. 119]--Oscillation in second viola and second cello under chord patterns, as at 2:04.
6:08 [m. 127]--Rapid buildup with sustained harmonies and preparation for Theme 2, as at 2:12.
6:15 [m. 135]--Theme 2 in D major, stated by first cello, then joined by first violin, as at 2:19.
6:31 [m. 151]--Fragmentation of theme and chromatic, syncopated ascent, as at 2:34.
6:40 [m. 161]--Climax and first statements of “AGA(T)HE” cipher, as at 2:44.
6:47 [m. 169]--Trailing violins, cello statement, and transposition of “Agathe” figure to A major, as at 2:52.
6:59 [m. 180]--New closing phrase, motion back to D, and partial cadence, as at 3:03.
7:10 [m. 191]--Closing material.  Calm variations of “Agathe” figure, as at 3:14.
7:19 [m. 199]--Interrupted half-close, high upward reach and buildup, then extended cadence, as at 3:23.  The four bars before the first and second endings (already heard) become the transition to the development.
7:40 [m. 217b]--Second ending.  The second violin continues its murmur in D major/minor.  The first violin plays the Theme 1 opening, as it did at the beginning of the first ending, but now it continues with the upward leap as heard in the actual theme, making a strong turn to minor.  As it does this, the first viola imitates the entire figure in exact inversion, leaping down to a close on D an octave below.  It is in turn imitated by the first cello, who plays the original version two octaves lower.  All are marked mezza voce
7:46 [m. 223b]--The second cello continues the imitation pattern, playing the inverted first viola line an octave lower as the first cello finishes its statement.  But at the same time, the first violin continues with the arching arpeggios from the theme.  These seem to stick more to D minor than to suggest B-flat major (which would correspond to the exposition).  Again, its pattern is inverted by the first viola before it finishes.  The first cello follows two octaves lower, as before, but this time it is not inverted by the second cello, which moves to plucked bass support.  As the first cello plays, the first violin enters with an upward expansion of the arpeggios, arriving a cadence on D minor.
7:53 [m. 229b]--This measure corresponds to the exposition repeat after the first ending.  The murmuring motion is passed to the second viola, who has been pausing, and it alternates between the second viola and second violin in each measure.  The same series of imitations and inversions follows, but the imitations come a measure earlier.  The first viola leads, followed immediately in inversion by the first cello.  The first violin, in turn, plays the original line an octave higher, followed directly by the second cello in inversion in a low octave.  Dovetailing immediately with this are closer imitations and inversions on the arching line, with the same pattern of instruments.
8:01 [m. 237]--The imitation breaks as the second cello completes its statement of the arching line.  The murmuring oscillation also breaks, with the second viola moving to a syncopated pulse and the second violin joining it in harmony a measure later.  The cellos expand their arching lines, and the first violin merges from its imitation into a new marching arpeggio.  The volume builds.  The first viola dovetails with this marching figure in a quasi-imitation, punctuated by the cellos in unison.  This first marching line remains in D minor, but it is followed by two more statements (with the same instrumental orientation) that move up by step, toward E minor and then F major.  Finally, a climax is reached, and the pattern is broken with a huge arrival on a half-close that reasserts D minor.
8:12 [m. 249]--The murmuring oscillation returns on the “dominant” of D minor, passed from first cello to second viola to first viola.  At that point, the violins enter in harmony above the first viola, and the volume quickly diminishes.  The second viola begins a very long absence.
8:16 [m. 253]--The cellos, again mezza voce, use the note C-sharp in the harmony to pivot to a key center there.  They both enter on a low bass C-sharp octave.  The first violin joins the first viola on the oscillation, but instead of a half-step, it uses a minor third.  The second violin holds a long C-sharp.  From there, the first cello presents a full statement of the main Theme 1 phrase in C-sharp minor.  The second cello doubles and supports it for four measures before dropping out.  Because the phrase is changed to minor, there is no longer any ambiguity of key or major/minor mode.  The two violins, then the first viola, make slight motions at the end.  The first cello continues through the first two downward leaps before passing the last two to the re-entering second cello.
8:31 [m. 267]--The music now becomes static.  The series of downward leaps in C-sharp minor are repeated by the two cellos three times, with the intervals subtly varied on the first and third of these to suggest F-sharp minor.  Above them, there is slow downward motion in the murmurings of the first violin and first viola (with the former twice expanding its third to a fourth), and the sustained second violin also moves down slowly.  The volume becomes even quieter, diminishing to pianissimo as the second cello reaches a low C-sharp and the violins drop out, leaving only the first viola to murmur.  The second cello holds its C-sharp, then punctuates it.  It does this a second time, all under the murmuring first viola.
8:47 [m. 283]--With sudden force, the oscillating gesture is passed from first cello to first viola.  Then, a fifth above, the first violin enters with an extension of the oscillation, propelling it forward.  As it does, it is supported by second violin and (entering after a long break) second viola.  The entire pattern is then repeated a half-step lower, on C.  It is the same as before, but now the second cello adds active plucked support, and the first violin line turns up more at the end.  A third statement, another half-step lower, on B, largely follows the first one, and a fourth one, still lower, on B-flat, follows the second, with the active plucked second cello.
9:02 [m. 299]--Having reached A, the oscillations now alternate between second viola and first violin, and they are active.  Against them, the first cello plays the familiar downward leaps from the theme, followed by their upward inversions from the first viola.  There is a strong harmonic motion through the “circle of fifths,” firmly supported by the plucked second cello bass and harmonies in the second violin.  With all six instruments active, there is a buildup to a climax.  The patterns move through A, E, B, and F-sharp (all minor).
9:09 [m. 307]--At the intermediate climax, the “circle of fifths” motion is interrupted by a return to D major.  At that point, the first violin merges from the oscillation into the downward leaps, followed in inversion by the second violin.  The oscillations move down to the first cello, which now alternates with the continuing second viola.  The second violin harmony moves to first viola.  The second cello still plays its plucked bass to mark the harmonic motion.  Another “circle of fifths” starts, moving from D major to A, E, and B (all minor).  Harmonies that appeared in the previous passage now support leaps in the opposite direction from before.  The intensity is sustained throughout.
9:16 [m. 315]--The major climax is now reached with another harmonic diversion, now to the home key of G.  The oscillations are now harmonized in three instruments, second violin and the two violas.  The second viola quickly drops out, though.  In contrary motion, the first violin and the two cellos in octaves forcefully reiterate the leap from G to the “dominant” note D, the first violin arching down and the cellos up.  After this first motion, the two cellos are in unison instead of octaves.  In the second statement, the violin does not arch back up, but joins with the cellos in unison on their downward swing.  The oscillation in second violin and first viola works downward, but emphasizes the notes from E-flat major, re-creating the ambiguity from the beginning.
9:23 [m. 323]--Suddenly, the bottom seems to drop out as a unison D in first violin and cellos slides down to C-sharp and the volume suddenly drops to piano.  The leaps are changed to dissonant tritones, or “augmented fourths.”  The first violin is joined an octave below by the second as the first viola, joined by the re-entering second viola, moves to a hushed tremolo.  The violins and cellos leap up their tritones, building powerfully.  After four measures, things slide again to D, which now plays the role of a preparatory “dominant.”  The second violin and first cello move to slow triplet pulsations against the viola tremolos and the solid second cello bass.  The first violin starts a long, two-octave chromatic descent over all of this, diminishing rapidly.
9:34 [m. 335]--Re-transition.  Quietly, at the end of its long chromatic descent, the first violin intones a familiar arpeggio from Theme 1.  It then drops out as the tremolos and pulsations continue below.  The first viola moves from the tremolo to the triplet pulsation, passing the former briefly to the second violin.  It (the first viola) then states the continuation of the familiar Theme 1 arpeggio as the second violin drops out.  It re-enters with pulsations as the second viola subtly moves back to the murmuring half-step from the very beginning, merging seamlessly into the two-measure two-measure lead-in to the main theme as the second violin, first viola, and two cellos fade out and the plucked second cello bass moves moves home to G.
9:42 [m. 343]--Theme 1 continues as in the exposition, but with second viola instead of first playing the murmuring half-step.  The first viola takes the background previously played by the second violin and second viola, and the second violin itself adds a new plucked arpeggio in counterpoint to the theme.  The arching motion from 0:07 and 4:04 [m. 7] follows.  The new plucked arpeggio is passed down to the second cello and back up to the second violin.  In the downward leaps (where the new arpeggio drops out), the first viola takes the place of the second, which continues on the unmoving half-step murmur.
9:58 [m. 357]--Second statement of theme reaching higher, analogous to 0:18 and 4:15 [m. 17].  Again, it is enhanced by the addition of the plucked arpeggios in the second violin and second cello.  The second viola continues with the half-step, and the first viola plays double stops, taking the previous first viola and second violin notes, as before.  Because of the longer statement, the second violin adds a downward plucked arpeggio after the second cello notes.  The continuation from 0:25 and 4:22 [m. 23] follows.  The second violin has its previous upswing, and again, the first viola replaces the second on the downward leap.
10:15 [m. 373]--B-major and E-major arpeggios, unchanged from 0:36 and 4:33 [m. 33].
10:23 [m. 381]--Turn back to G major with syncopated harmonies, unchanged from 0:45 and 4:42 [m. 41].
10:37 [m. 393]--Analogous to 0:58 and 4:55 [m. 53].  The violin parts are unchanged.  The melody itself is given to the first viola instead of the first cello.  The first cello now takes the new plucked arpeggio counterpoint by itself, the second violin being otherwise occupied.  It begins with upward motion.  The second viola takes the notes previously played by both first and second violas, now in double stops.
10:41 [m. 397]--Continuation, analogous to 1:03 and 4:59 [m. 57].  Again, the violin parts with their decorations are unchanged.  The first viola continues with its statement of the theme.  The first cello continues with its plucked arpeggios, now adding brief descents and arching figures.  The second viola now moves a bit away from the previous viola parts, with some of their notes being covered in the first cello’s plucked notes.  The downward leaps are altered.  The first viola obviously replaces the first cello.  The second leap is taken by second viola alone, the third by first cello alone (briefly breaking from its plucked notes), and the last, as before, by second cello.
10:51 [m. 407]--Second large phrase, analogous to 1:13 and 5:09 [m. 67].  As expected, the first viola continues to present the theme, and the first cello continues with the new plucked arpeggios, but there is a subtle, sophisticated change at the top of the rising line.  Instead of suggesting E-flat major, the melody is altered to suggest A-flat major, a striking harmonic detour.  The descending first violin line, the double-stops in the second viola, and the second cello bass are changed to reflect this.  At the upward stretches, the first viola returns to the original G-major line.  The two violins resume their alternation on the murmuring and decorative figures, but the contour of both is changed from the exposition to minimize the downturns.
11:00 [m. 417]--Analogous to 1:24 and 5:19 [m. 77].  The first viola stalls, as the first cello had done before.  The contour of the violin lines continues to emphasize the upward reach, minimizing the downturns.  The first cello still plucks the new arpeggios.  As in the exposition, the stretching motions are passed to the first violin, the murmuring figures to the cellos, and from this point (m. 423, corresponding to m. 83), the scoring and the strong buildup are unchanged from the exposition.
11:13 [m. 431]--Syncopated harmonies and strong cadence, unchanged from 1:38 and 5:33 [m. 91].
11:17 [m. 435]--Transition.  The feverish first cello descent, moving toward D major, is unchanged from the first half of the passage from 1:42 and 5:37 [m. 95].  The second half of this passage, led by the first viola and moving to A, is cut completely.
11:25 [m. 443]--This passage corresponds to 1:57 and 5:52 [m. 111].  Because the motion to A has been completely excised, it begins a fifth higher, still on D.  This is a simple way to facilitate the later arrival of Theme 2 in the home key of G.  The scoring, led by first viola, is remarkably the same in this transposition.
11:32 [m. 451]--Corresponds to 2:04 and 6:00 [m. 119].  Other than the transposition up a fourth and some slight changes and exchanges in the second violin and first viola parts, it follows the pattern exactly, led by the oscillations in second viola and second cello.
11:40 [m. 459]--Rapid buildup, corresponding to 2:12 and 6:08 [m. 127].  Again, the transposition is the only significant change other than some exchange of the second violin and first viola parts.  In the approach to Theme 2, however, there is a two-measure extension given to the violins, the first trailing after the second, working up with wide leaps and broken octaves.
11:49 [m. 469]--Theme 2, in the home key of G major, analogous to 2:19 and 6:15 [m. 135].  It is now given to first viola instead of first cello.  The oscillating motion is given to the first violin, who plays broken octaves, beginning on a sustained high D and then working downward.  The second cello provides a more constant bass, throbbing with a low D on alternating strings.  The lines of counterpoint are provided by second violin and first cello, and are significantly more active and chromatic than in the exposition.  As before, the repetition is passed to the first violin, now at the same level and without doubling.  The second viola takes over one of the counterpoint lines.  It and the second violin basically exchange their lines from before.  The first cello now takes the plucked bass, and the second cello takes over the oscillating motion.
12:04 [m. 485]--Fragmentation of theme and chromatic, syncopated ascent, analogous to 2:34 and 6:31 [m. 151].  The two violin parts and the second viola basically follow their same patterns from the exposition.  For the first four measures, the other three parts are exchanged, the first viola taking the leading line previously played by first cello, the second cello playing the previous first viola oscillations, and the first cello playing the plucked bass.  After four measures, these three instruments return to their original roles.
12:14 [m. 495]--Climax and first statements of “AGA(T)HE” cipher, analogous to 2:44 and 6:40 [m. 161], scored as before, but played in G major on notes previously not used.
12:21 [m. 503]--Trailing violins, cello statement, and transposition of “Agathe” figure, analogous to 2:52 and 6:47 [m. 169].  The analogous transposition brings the “Agathe” figure to its original pitches in D major, and the actual letters of the name.  This shows extremely clever compositional planning.  The scoring is largely similar, but the violas and cellos are thinned out, with more unison playing instead of octaves in the cellos.
12:32 [m. 514]--New closing phrase, motion back home to G, and partial cadence, analogous to 3:03 and 6:59 [m. 180].  The scoring is extremely similar, with a notable difference being the shift down an octave in the violins at the climax.
12:44 [m. 525]--Closing Material with variations of the “Agathe” figure, analogous to 3:14 and 7:10 [m. 191].  The scoring is as before, with the first viola leading and other instruments following.  There is a subtle octave displacement in the second cello part.
12:52 [m. 533]--Interrupted half-close, high upward reach and buildup, then extended cadence, as at 3:23 and 7:19 [m. 199].  The scoring is thinner.  The first violin and second viola parts are largely as before.  The cellos are used less, especially the second, with some elements being transferred from first viola to second violin, first cello to first viola, and second cello to first cello.  But the pattern approaching the cadence is essentially unchanged.  The cadence arrives in G, coinciding with the coda.
13:09 [m. 547]--Brahms marks the coda “Un poco sostenuto.”  The first four measures, beginning with the arrival of the cadence, are analogous to the four measures preceding the two endings of the exposition (grouped with the closing material above).  The murmuring oscillations are in the second viola instead of the second violin, and the two upward leaps are in the first violin (as before) and the first viola (taking over for the second).  The second cello is absent for some length.
13:14 [m. 551]--A statement of Theme 1 begins, with the two violins and first viola in harmony over the oscillating second viola.  The signature E-flat in the theme is re-notated as D-sharp, underscoring a new harmonic turn, which is now toward B major instead of E-flat (the same distance in the opposite direction).  The first cello inverts the opening leap, as would be expected, but it is also changed to reflect the turn to B major.  The second viola oscillation steadily widens to an octave.  After the initial leaps, the theme takes a new direction, with a surging, but still quiet syncopated line in harmony.  After quickly moving back to G, it descends, then surges forward again with heavy syncopation, leading to a weak cadence.  The second viola again narrows, but only to a whole step, not a half-step.
13:27 [m. 563]--Another statement of the altered theme begins, corresponding to the higher-reaching second statement in the exposition.  The first viola begins it, but it is passed to the first violin.  The second cello finally enters with the inverted leap, and the first cello drops out.  There is another harmonic motion, this time to E major, and the second viola again widens its oscillation, but not to a full octave.  The surging syncopated line follows again with a quick shift back to G, this time with a higher, longer, more urgent ascent and descent.  The second cello now provides a chromatically rising bass line.  Brahms indicates a steady increase in volume and speed.  This time, the arrival is on the “dominant” harmony.
13:40 [m. 575]--The surging syncopated line gathers strength and again moves forward, with a forceful swell in volume.  The second cello now establishes a powerful “pedal point” on the “dominant” note, D.  The first cello rejoins after its absence, doubling the first violin on the ever more excited syncopated line.  After two upward surges, the second cello finally moves to the keynote, G, and the first violin shoots even higher.  At this point, the first cello joins the second viola, strengthening the oscillating motion, which again widens. 
13:50 [m. 587]--At the climax, there is a sudden harmonic detour back toward the “dominant” key of D.  This is marked by rapidly repeated triplet double stops in second violin and second viola as the oscillations stop.  The two cellos also reiterate their bass notes, but in straight rhythm.  The lower instruments cut off, and the first violin descends with a scale in the “dominant” key as the volume diminishes.  At the end of this, there is another unexpected, accented, syncopated dissonance (significantly on E-flat), over a strong “dominant” arrival with more repeated triplet double-stops and straight-rhythm bass notes in the same instruments.  The first violin descent follows an octave lower, but this time it incorporates chromatic notes and skips, leading to an arrival on G major, with the volume now diminishing all the way to piano.
13:57 [m. 595]--The first violin drops out after its second descent.  The second viola returns to the familiar half-step murmur on its original pitches.  The second violin and first viola, in harmony, have longer lines above the oscillation, also including half-step motion over small swells of volume, including the crucial note E-flat.  The cellos provide bass support, the second plucked.  After two such “swells,” the first violin enters on an upbeat with a rising octave, then a huge upward arpeggio with repeated notes, building rapidly to forte again.  This arpeggio once again emphasizes E-flat major.  As this last flourish reaches the top, the second viola murmuring breaks, and three full chords in all instruments mark the final G-major cadence.
14:15--END OF MOVEMENT [605 mm.]

2nd Movement:
Scherzo – Allegro non troppo; Presto giocoso; Tempo primo (Scherzo with Trio). G MINOR, 2/4 and 3/4 time.
SCHERZO (Allegro non troppo, G minor, 2/4 time)
Part 1
0:00 [m. 1]--The first violin, harmonized by the second violin and first viola, presents the stately gavotte theme of the Scherzo.  Its quasi-baroque nature is emphasized by the ornaments (short trills) in the melodic line.  The second viola and the two cellos, meanwhile, provide a constant plucked background.  At first, they pass a figure of a leap up (a fourth or fifth) then down an octave, beginning off the beat.  After two such patterns, the second viola drops out for a time, leaving the plucked figures to the cellos.
0:11 [m. 9]--The theme is extended with a metrically unusual closing phrase.  It begins with a falling third that is held across a bar line.  The third is reiterated, followed by an arching figure in triplet rhythm.  The short trills in the first violin are still heard, with the second violin and first viola continuing to harmonize.  Under the triplets, the plucked background is changed to briefly incorporate the downbeats.  On the triplet figure, the second violin harmonizes in thirds.  The entire gesture is then repeated under a held first violin A, with the viola harmonizing the second violin.  This statement is a fourth lower and moves to the “dominant” key, D major.  The second viola re-enters the plucked background, the first cello dropping out.
0:21 [m. 17]--A delayed cadence on D in the second violin merges with the second major idea, derived from the triplets of the cadence phrase.  It is in D minor, not major.  The first violin and first viola, in octaves, play three arching figures and a fourth, more cadence-like one, all in triplets as the other four instruments rest.  The first arching figure is stepwise; the other two are arpeggios.  After four measures, the first cello plays the same pattern, shifting it to A minor.  The first violin and first viola continue in octaves with a syncopated accompaniment.
0:32 [m. 25]--The original D-minor version of the triplet theme is now played by the entering second violin and second viola.  The syncopated accompaniment continues in first violin and first viola, while the first cello adds  a bass line clearly derived from the opening gavotte theme.  The A-minor version does not follow, but the cadence gesture is repeated in the first viola as the second cello finally joins in, taking up a short-long figure from the gavotte theme and passing it back to the first cello.  The first violin and second viola drop out, followed by the second violin.  The first cello then provides a full cadence in D minor in the sixth measure, which is haltingly reiterated, with plucked second cello, in the seventh.
0:41 [m. 32]--The transition back to the repeat is two measures, the expected eighth bar of the aborted phrase and an added, asymmetrical ninth measure, which also serves as the first ending (m. 33a).  The first viola drops out, and the first cello, with plucked support from the second, plays a rising line that reiterates the D-minor cadence, then changes D to a “dominant,” leading back to G minor with a falling octave.
Part 1 Repeated
0:44 [m. 1]--Opening gavotte melody, as at the beginning.
0:54 [m. 9]--Metrically unusual closing phrase and motion to D, as at 0:11.
1:04 [m. 17]--Second, D-minor idea in triplets, as at 0:21.
1:15 [m. 25]--Statement of triplet idea with fuller texture, cut off early by cello cadence, as at 0:32.
1:24 [m. 32]--Transition to Part 2.  The second measure, also the second ending (m. 33b) is only changed by replacing the falling octave with a rising half-step, propelling the key toward E-flat.
Part 2
1:26 [m. 34]--The violins and violas take over for the first cello, launching into the contrasting or “b” section.  The second viola pulsates in triplets underneath the other three, who play in harmony.  The phrase is a continuation of the rising cello line, in a mixture of major and minor, on E-flat.  As they conclude it, the cellos enter again (the second still plucked), with the same rising line heard at the second ending, this time moving up another half-step, to E, where the upper instruments repeat the same pattern.
1:35 [m. 41]--The cellos again enter against the conclusion of the phrase, but now in octaves, with the second bowed.  The sequence continues, but it is shortened greatly.  The violins and violas quickly take over from the cellos, propelling the music further upward.  Then the same two-measure pattern follows, moving up another half-step.  At the same time, the volume builds, and there is a great sense of tension.  Then the sequence is shortened even more, to two-note figures alternating in the cellos and violins and steadily rising.  The violas melt into a pulsing background, now in “straight” rhythm.  The cellos begin three such exchanges, and the violins follow as expected on the first two.
1:42 [m. 47]--The violins, in octaves above the pulsing violas, move up more than expected, to a high G.  But this does not signal a return to the home key just yet, as G seems to be working as a “dominant” in C minor.  The rising half-step from high F-sharp to G is reiterated twice, with the cellos interjecting a rising figure that reaches a half-step above an octave.  The mood is tense, and the volume is full.
1:46 [m. 50]--As the violins land on the high G a third time, the second cello suddenly states the head of the main gavotte theme, clearly in C minor.  It is immediately imitated by the first cello, then the first viola.  These close imitations are in stretto, coming before the previous statement has concluded.  The order is then reversed, with the theme passed back to the first cello, then the second cello.  The second viola does come in with the first, but it only joins in harmonic support with the second cello during its “gap.”  The first cello actually makes its two statements in direct succession.  As the gavotte figure is passed up and down these lower instruments in C minor, the volume quickly diminishes.
1:53 [m. 56]--Suddenly, the violins and violas gently intone the theme on G, but it is sweetly inflected to G major.  The tentative first measure, still in minor, with second violin and first viola in harmony above after-beat pulses from the second viola, is reiterated with the first violin entering an octave higher, the second violin taking over from the first viola, and the violas joining on the after-beats.  The theme then continues through its first four measures.
2:00 [m. 61]--Interrupting the theme, the first cello enters with a rising G-major triplet arpeggio that is then taken up by the second violin.  The first viola echoes the end of the thematic fragment, unexpectedly and plaintively turning to B minor.  In that key, the triplet arpeggio again follows, this time with the first violin following the cello.  Now the second viola plays the thematic echo, turning to D major.  The arpeggio in that key follows in first viola and second violin.  The third statement of the thematic echo is played by the first cello, who turns, following the pattern, to F-sharp minor.  The first violin takes the arpeggio in that key by itself, delaying it a measure.  The second cello enters in support with a plucked descent, and the pattern breaks.
2:10 [m. 69]--With a slide up to G, the reprise, or “a’ ” section begins.  The first eight measures of the main scherzo/gavotte theme are stated as at the beginning and at 0:44.
2:20 [m. 77]--The closing phrase is replaced by a similar six-measure passage that begins with the violins a third higher.  The two falling thirds held across bar lines are now followed by a sudden upward motion that uses the falling thirds and speeds up.  Then a falling arpeggio settles things down.  This “replacement” passage (still without the second viola) keeps the music in G, avoiding the motion to D from Part 1.  This is confirmed by a strong G-minor cadence over anticipatory arching triplets.
2:28 [m. 83]--The “second theme” from 0:21 and 1:04 [m. 17] is transposed to the home key of G minor.  This time, the octaves are in the two violins, and the first viola takes the previous first cello continuation, now in D minor instead of A minor.
2:39 [m. 91]--The continuation from 0:32 and 1:15 [m. 25] is played in G minor, with altered scoring.  The triplets are only played by the second viola, which enters here, the syncopated line is played by the violins, still in octaves, and the “bass line” from the gavotte melody is played by first viola.  The first cello adds a new plucked bass support.  The cadence gesture is repeated by the second violin.  The second cello enters as expected, now exchanging its figure with the first viola.  The first cello then abandons its plucked bass to provide the full cadence in the sixth measure.  But this time the halting reiteration does not follow.
2:46 [m. 97]--The ending is expanded.  The first violin responds to the cello cadence in a questioning way, using the same figure on the “dominant” level, and the first cello then repeats its cadence.  Meanwhile, the two violas and the second cello all pluck supporting notes, and the second violin continues with a gentle counterpoint.  This entire sequence is then repeated.  The first violin appears to begin it a third time, but, in alternation with the second violin, it works upward, building greatly in volume.  The first cello, the “cadence” instrument, briefly drops out.  The violins briefly pause at the high point.
2:55 [m. 104]--The second violin leads a slower descent as the first cello re-enters.  The descent is taken up by the first viola (taking its bow) as the violins drop out.  A seemingly final arrival on G is reiterated in the lower instruments.
3:02 [m. 109]--Coda.  This addition is somewhat unexpected.  As the first cello settles into a triplet-rhythm oscillation in broken octaves on G, the first violin leads a brief passage of imitation.  Its yearning line gently arches and descends.  It is imitated closely by the second violin, then even closer by the second viola.  The imitation is broken as the first violin uses a dotted rhythm to fall to a cadence, supported by motion in the oscillating first cello and plucked notes in the second cello.
3:07 [m. 113]--Another passage of imitation follows, led by the first viola, which enters here.  It is followed by the second violin, then, at the same distance, by the first violin and second viola in octaves.  This time, these last instruments provide the cadence, with the first violin reaching very high.  That top instrument reiterates its cadence twice, as the first viola takes over the oscillations from the first cello and the second violin adds a plaintive counterpoint alternating with the cadences.  The lower three instruments are all plucked.  Finally, all six instruments come together in a decisive, but quiet close, with the first violin leaping down from its height.  The top three are bowed, the bottom three plucked.
TRIO (Presto giocoso, G major, 3/4 time)
Part 1
3:17 [m. 121]--The trio section has a “Slavonic” character that almost sounds like something Dvořák might have written.  Bursting out in bright major, it is presented by all six instruments in full, almost swaggering sonority.  An upbeat from violins and first viola leads into the heavily syncopated theme in triple time.  These three instruments play together in harmony.  The cellos and second viola provide the rhythmic accompaniment.  The first cello plucks the downbeats, the second cello bows consistently with wide leaps from the downbeats, and the second viola plays double-stop harmonies on the two “upbeats” of each measure. 
3:22 [m. 129]--The second half of the theme reaches to higher octaves in the violins and moves toward D major.  Toward the end, all six instruments come together in a brief break from the syncopation and accompaniment patterns.  The lead-in to the repetition of the theme easily moves back to G.
3:27 [m. 137]--Repetition of the theme.  The first half is unchanged other than the new two-note upbeat and continuous accompaniment from the first statement.
3:31 [m. 145]--The second half is also a near-exact repetition, but a subtle alteration in the portion where all six instruments come together causes the key to veer to B minor rather than D major.
Part 2
3:36 [m. 153]--The upbeats lead directly into a new phrase, whose principal interest lies in the downward-scurrying figures (emerging from longer notes) presented in unison by second violin and first cello.  The other instruments heavily emphasize downbeats of notes held for almost two measures (five beats) and the upbeats leading into them, also mostly in unison.  Again beginning on G major, the music moves in waves that gradually work upward.  After three iterations, the downbeat-upbeat patterns speed up, reduced to one measure.  Finally, these patterns come to a stop, and the volume rapidly diminishes as the second violin and first cello, still rushed, plunge downward under a preparatory “dominant” harmony.
3:43 [m. 165]--The first violin, with the first cello undulating beneath it, presents a hushed, straightened-out version of the theme without overt syncopation.  The second violin sustains long notes.  The first viola and second cello only briefly join at the halfway point between the two phrases.  The second viola is completely absent.  Although the strong, overt syncopation is not present, Brahms does play with the meter on the back half of each phrase, making it sound like the notes are grouped in two rather than three.  At the end of the second phrase, the first cello changes from undulation to heavily syncopated bass notes, the first viola enters to take over the undulating accompaniment, and the key again turns to B minor.
3:53 [m. 181]--A transitional phrase based on the “scurrying” figures from 3:36 [m. 153] immediately turns back to G major via its “dominant” chord.  The rushing figures are now only played by the first violin, which now shoots upward after long notes.  The other instruments, except first cello, play the longer upbeat-downbeat patterns, again speeding up after three iterations.  Finally, the first violin, joined an octave below by the second violin, rushes upward and the volume rapidly builds.  The first cello also enters here, joining the others on sustained chords.  This upward surge merges into the return of the main dance theme.
Part 3
4:00 [m. 193]--The upbeat approaches from on high, and the main theme is again presented.
4:05 [m. 201]--The second, higher half moves to D major, as in the original presentation.
4:10 [m. 209]--The music quickly moves back home to G.  At this point, there is an exchange between the “scurrying” figures and the syncopated main theme.  Under the former, the violas have a surging pulsation.  Fragments of both elements are twice exchanged.  After the second exchange, the main theme takes over and expands upward, reaching high in the first violin.  At the top, a note from the minor key, E-flat, becomes prominent, signaling the beginning of the transition to minor and the scherzo section reprise.
4:21 [m. 227]--Transition to scherzo reprise.  All of a sudden, the violins and cellos drop out, leaving the violas with a hushed, skeletal phrase derived from the main theme, played in octaves and in minor.  After this, the violins and cellos take over, shifting back to major and playing a fragment of the “hushed” version of the theme from 3:43 [m. 165].  But this is quickly cut off by the violas, who play their ominous minor-key fragment again.
4:27 [m. 239]--The violins and cellos again attempt the “hushed” version, but they are now infected with the minor key, even going beyond it with the pathos-laden flattened second degree (A-flat).  They are interrupted by the ominous octaves again.  This time, they are played by second viola and second cello, and are plucked.  They also begin a fourth lower.  As they conclude, the violins and first viola suddenly come in with the first three harmonized notes of the scherzo theme, one to each bar.  One measure of the fast triple time trio is equated to one half-measure of the slower duple-meter scherzo.  A plucked D (the preparatory “dominant”) in the cellos sets up the return of the actual scherzo section.
Part 1
4:36 [m. 251]--The entire scherzo reprise is written out in the score, although the only variation is in the coda.  Opening gavotte melody, as at the beginning and at 0:44.
4:46 [m. 259]--Metrically unusual closing phrase and motion to D, as at 0:11 and 0:54 [m. 9].
4:56 [m. 267]--Second, D minor idea in triplets, as at 0:21 and 1:04 [m. 17].
5:06 [m. 275]--Statement of triplet idea with fuller texture, cut off early by cello cadence, as at 0:32 and 1:15 [m. 25].
5:15 [m. 282]--Transition to Part 2, as at the second ending from 1:24 [m. 32].
Part 2
5:18 [m. 284]--Contrasting section mixing major and minor on E-flat and E, as at 1:26 [m. 34].
5:26 [m. 291]--Shortened sequences, upward motion, and building volume, as at 1:35 [m. 41].
5:33 [m. 297]--Motion to high G in violins with reiterations, as at 1:42 [m. 47].
5:37 [m. 300]--C-minor imitation of main gavotte theme in violas and cellos, as at 1:46 [m. 50].
5:45 [m. 306]--Gentle major-key inflection of gavotte theme, as at 1:53 [m. 56].
5:51 [m. 311]--Rising triplet arpeggios with thematic echoes and motion through B minor, D major, and F-sharp minor, as at 2:00 [m. 61].
6:01 [m. 319]--Reprise of main theme’s first eight measures, as at 2:10 [m. 69].
6:11 [m. 327]--New transition with strong G-minor cadence, as at 2:20 [m. 77].
6:19 [m. 333]--Second theme in G minor, as at 2:28 [m. 83].
6:29 [m. 341]--Continuation with new scoring, as at 2:39 [m. 91].
6:36 [m. 347]--Expansion of ending with upward motion and buildup, as at 2:46 [m. 97].
6:45 [m. 354]--Descent and arrival on low G, as at 2:55 [m. 104].  In preparation for the new coda, the first viola does not play the last reiteration of the G.
6:52 [m. 359]--New coda.  The original coda is replaced by a variation with completely altered character.  It is marked “Animato,” and the quiet, almost resigned mood is replaced by one of angry defiance.  All instruments are bowed.  The previous straight rhythms are changed to agitated triplets.  The outlines of the original are still present.  The imitations are now in the three “first” instruments, moving down and each separated by a measure.  The second violin doubles and harmonizes the imitations, while the second viola and second cello provide pulsating motion replacing the previous oscillations.
6:56 [m. 363]--The outlines of the original closing passage are present in this one.  The imitations rise up from first viola through second violin and finally first violin, reaching very high.  A fourth imitation is added in the second viola.  The triplet rhythm is still in force, and the cellos provide the pulsating background.  The reiterations of the cadence are in the violins and cellos, the violas continuing the feverish triplet motion in octaves.  The ending, with the decisive downward leaps, incorporates long-short rhythms and is extended by a measure for a longer descent and a forceful finish.
7:08--END OF MOVEMENT [371 mm.]

3rd Movement: Poco adagio (Theme and Variations).  E MINOR (last variation in E MAJOR), 4/4 time.

0:00 [m. 1]--Theme, Part 1.  For most of the theme, the cellos and second viola are absent.  In this first part, the first violin presents the expressive melody.  It rises upward in two leaps of a fourth (a similar contour to the first movement’s main theme), then slowly descends stepwise with a short decorative trill before another wide leap of a sixth.  The second violin adds descending three-note figures beginning after the strong beats, and the first viola contributes winding five-note figures in triplet rhythm, also beginning off the strong beats.  The whole two-measure gesture is then stated a step lower.  It slows at the end, and the wide closing leap is replaced by a third, with the two lower instruments briefly holding up.
0:17 [m. 5]--Theme, Part 2.  The two violins begin the phrase harmonizing in thirds.  The first viola still adds its winding triplets.  After the first yearning notes, which turn to B minor, the violins vary them by adding triplet rhythms.  These build in volume, and then the first violin erupts into a passionate outburst of shorter sixteenth notes as the second violin descends chromatically and the first viola abandons its triplets in favor of isolated falling octaves.  The three instruments settle down on the “dominant” harmony in B minor.
0:33 [m. 9]--The second part of the theme is “rounded,” returning to patterns from Part 1.  The first violin rises with the leaping fourths, then falls, also with leaping fourths.  The second violin figures add downward leaps, as do the first viola’s triplets.  The second viola enters here for the first time as a mildly syncopated bass support.  The cellos are still silent.  The key moves back to E minor, but then colorfully veers to F (major/minor mixture) on the descent.  In the last two measures, the first violin plays a cadence phrase in E minor, derived from the main rising line, and the lower instruments add notes on strong beats.  The first viola still plays in triplets, but adds wide downward-arching leaps.  The second violin and first viola trail chromatically, in thirds, slowing after the cadence.
0:49 [m. 13]--Variation 1, Part 1.  The cellos now make their entrance.  In fact, an upbeat in long-short triplet rhythm from the second cello begins the variation.  In the first part, the first violin and first viola, in octaves, play two long, somewhat foreboding chromatic descents separated by the leap of the sixth from the middle of the phrase.  The second violin rests.  The first cello and second viola play an accompaniment in rising plucked arpeggios, passing them back and forth.  The second cello provides bass support, emphasizing the long-short rhythms on the upbeats.
1:06 [m. 17]--Variation 1, Part 2.  The turn to B minor follows as expected.  The same patterns from Part 1 continue, with chromatic descents in the first violin and first viola, plucked arpeggios in second viola and first cello (the latter adding descents in the last two measures), and a bass with long-short upbeats in the second cello.  There is a buildup to the midpoint, then a receding, as expected.  Halfway through, the first viola breaks from its octaves with the first violin, then reverses direction, harmonizing the first violin line.
1:21 [m. 21]--The second violin enters for the “rounding,”alternating with the second cello on the long-short upbeat figures.  It is doubled by the second viola, who leaves the plucked arpeggios to the first cello alone.  One long chromatic descent in the first violin and first viola, turning to E minor and moving through F, as in the theme, is followed by a soaring cadence gesture in E minor.  The accompanying instruments trail after the cadence, slowing as in the theme.
1:37 [m. 25]--Variation 2, Part 1.  This variation is based on close neighbor-note motion.  The second cello leads in again with the long upbeat, and all the other instruments except second violin enter together in harmony right before the downbeat.  All except the first cello play the close, largely chromatic neighbor-note figures.  The first cello has more leaping motion.  The first violin holds some notes while the others move.  They all continue to alternate with the second cello.  The initial three-note figures expand halfway through the phrase, and the second violin enters there.  The second cello continues to play its three-note figures, but adds a mild syncopation under the other instruments. 
1:57 [m. 29]--Variation 2, Part 2.  The first cello drops out.  At the turn to B minor, the violins and violas (with the second viola pausing for half a measure) play the close neighbor motion in triplet rhythm.  The second cello plays wide octaves, but also adds upbeats in the triplet rhythm.  The instruments wind up and down, the second violin dropping out halfway through.  Everything remains quiet, and Brahms adds a dolce marking, but there is some agitation.  At the end, a first violin descent slows to straight rhythm.
2:12 [m. 33]--At the “rounding,” the first violin and the two violas lead.  The second violin remains absent through the phrase.  The second cello follows in alternation, and the first cello, which was absent for the first half of Part 2, joins the first violin and violas after their initial lead-in.  The highly chromatic first violin, which again includes some held notes (including across bar lines), moves steadily downward.  The violas and especially the first cello have some wider motion.  The return to E minor and the pass through F follow as expected, and as usual, the instruments slow for the last cadence in E minor.
2:35 [m. 37]--Variation 3, Part 1.  Più animato.  This forceful variation is fugal in nature, with dense imitations.  The second cello begins, as in the previous variations, now with a repeated-note upbeat in dotted (long-short) rhythm.  It leaps up an octave, then breaks into stepwise triplet figures that wind down and up.  The second viola imitates it a half-bar later and an octave higher, and the first cello, a fourth higher, a half-bar after that.  It is followed an octave higher by the first viola.  All the entries begin with the repeated notes and octave leap.  Meanwhile, the second cello introduces arpeggios as it closes its phrase.
2:39 [m. 39]--The second violin follows as expected, a fourth higher, but now the second viola, then the second cello, begin again with even closer imitation (called stretto), one beat later in succession, each an octave lower than the last.  The first cello adds leaps and reaches a closing point.  Finally, a full measure after the second violin, the first violin enters a fourth above it.  The phrase comes to a conclusion on the “dominant” with a combination of the triplets and the long-short rhythm (the latter in first viola and first cello).
2:43 [m. 37]--Variation 3, Part 1 repeated.  For the first time, Brahms indicates that each part of the variation is to be repeated.  A “first ending” on the second half of the last measure (m. 40) places the short note of the second cello upbeat in anticipation of the repeat.
2:46 [m. 39]--Second violin entry with close imitations, then first violin entry and arrival on the “dominant.”  The “second ending” places the short note of the upbeat in the first cello, a fifth higher to lead into B minor.
2:50 [m. 41]--Variation 3, Part 2.  The imitations are less prominent in the second part.  In the quieter contrasting B-minor bars, they are reduced to the two cellos, with the second following the first, then the first beginning another statement a step higher and the second quickly breaking the imitation.  Above them, the violins present an arching line in thirds.  This is immediately repeated, with a wider opening reach and with the two violas doubling the violins.  A similar pattern follows, with the second violin adding mild syncopation.  The repetition with viola doubling is a step higher, and the volume builds.
2:58 [m. 45]--In the “rounding,” the imitation is also less complex.  The two violas and the first cello begin a statement in harmony at the return to E minor.  The second cello adds bass support using the repeated-note dotted-rhythm upbeat figure.  The violins follow the lower instruments, also in harmony.  The imitation quickly breaks at the passage through F (now clearly minor), and the top five instruments, still in their previous groups, play arching lines, largely with the groups in contrary motion.  The second cello continues to provide a dotted-rhythm bass line to all of this.  The first ending quickly moves away from the cadence to lead back to B minor and the repetition.
3:06 [m. 41]--Variation 3, Part 2 repeated.  First four bars in B minor.
3:14 [m. 45]--The “rounding” bars are stated again.  The second ending has a more solid cadence, but it is immediately followed by the upbeat leading into Variation 4.
3:22 [m. 49]--Variation 4, Part 1.  This vigorous variation also uses imitation, but this time two separate ideas are presented at the same time.  The violas lead with the dotted-rhythm upbeat, but they each present a different idea.  The first viola leaps down to a rapid arching figure in sixteenth-notes.  The second viola plays a detached line in broken thirds.  The first viola is imitated  a fourth above by the second violin, and the second viola a fifth below by the first cello.  The imitation is consistent through two bars, as the leading violas briefly pause.  The “outer” instruments, the first violin and second cello, enter as if they were going to imitate, but they instead play leaping lines in the same character as the “upper” and “lower” idea.
3:26 [m. 51]--The entire pattern begins again a step lower, but after a measure, it is shifted up, leading to the half-close that ends the first part.
3:30 [m. 49]--Variation 4, Part 1 repeated.  The first ending has the violas returning to their initial upbeat.
3:34 [m. 51]--Restatement of pattern leading to half-close.
3:38 [m. 53]--Variation 4, Part 2.  The second ending has a new upbeat in the first viola leading to the contrasting passage in B minor.  For maximum contrast, it is marked pianissimo and dolce.  The imitation is reduced to leaping octaves (an octave apart) passed between the violas on the dotted-rhythm upbeat.  The violins and the cellos play descending lines in harmony, the cellos taking over for the violins.  After two sequences of this pattern, the violins and cellos come together, building in volume in preparation for the “rounding” passage.
3:45 [m. 57]--In the “rounding,” the imitation is reduced to the rapid figures beginning with the dotted-rhythm upbeat that leap down, and they are in the violins.  The second leads, and the first follows, initially a third lower.  The violas, in harmony, play a variant of the detached figure that was previously used in imitation.  The first cello reiterates the dotted-rhythm upbeat and downward-leaping octave, and the second cello, plucked, provides a bass line, also with leaping octaves.  The turn to F minor occurs while the violins are playing in imitation.  This breaks, with the first violin reaching high and emphasizing the dotted-rhythm figure.  The second cello takes the bow at the approach to the cadence.
3:54 [m. 53]--Variation 4, Part 2 repeated.  The opening first viola upbeat is omitted.
4:01 [m. 57]--The “rounding” bars are restated.  The second ending has a very short upbeat leading into the transition passage.
4:10 [m. 61]--Transition to Variation 5.  This quiet, intense transition, still in the faster tempo, helps to set up the final variation.  It is five measures long.  The second violin and the violas have the short upbeat, which leads into a harmonized downward slide that uses the dotted rhythm and is highly syncopated.  At the same time, the first cello plays a rising line that is none other than the initial gesture of the original theme.  It plays this gesture twice in succession, with a continuous rise.  Neither of these is at the original pitch level (the first suggests A minor, the second B minor).  Finally, the first violin enters with a longer, slowed down version of the gesture on the original pitches, harmonized by the other instruments, including isolated plucked notes from the second cello.  All except first violin pause on a suspended half-close.
4:23 [m. 66]--Variation 5, Part 1.  Adagio.  The slow tempo returns.  The rising upbeat in the violas is notated in eighth notes (still in the last measure of the fast tempo), but the continuation is in sixteenth notes, indicating that this variation is twice as slow.  That viola upbeat is heard as the first violin holds its suspended note.  The key signature changes to E major.  The violas lead into the gentle final variation, supported by plucked notes in second violin and the cellos.  They play arching harmonized lines, in the soothing major key.  The first violin and second cello (bowed) enter with brief imitation, then continue, the first violin taking over the lead role.  The second violin provides a plucked background throughout, as does the first cello, although the latter twice takes the bow to continue and harmonize the second cello line.
4:48 [m. 66]--Variation 5, Part 1 repeated.  The viola upbeat is now notated as sixteenth notes in the first ending.
5:13 [m. 70]--Variation 5, Part 2.  The contrasting passage is now in B major, still using the gentle arching lines.  The violas again lead in harmony, with the first violin following and taking over.  The second violin drops out for two measures.  The plucked background is taken by the cellos, who alternate on the “dominant” note in B major, F-sharp, an octave apart.  The passage is more chromatic than Part 1.  The second violin enters in the last two measures, adding an additional line of counterpoint that harmonizes the first violin.  At the end of the phrase, the cellos take the bow, still on the F-sharp, but the second cello holds it and plays, as a double-stop, a dissonant leaning motion into the fifth above it.  The violas lead into the “rounding.”
5:40 [m. 74]--The “rounding” is similar to Part 1 in most ways, except that both cellos now play plucked notes, taking the bow together at two points, including at the end of the phrase.  The passage through F is now major and is prolonged.  The second violin is again plucked, but now adds double-stop and triple-stop chords.  The violas sustain the arching lines, and the first violin again takes over the lead.  The variation reaches a full close in E major with chromatic tinges and a brief first violin trill.
6:07 [m. 70]--Variation 5, Part 2 repeated.  The viola upbeat is different, continuing as a descent at the end of the variation.  The second violin upbeat is now a two-note harmony, still plucked.
6:33 [m. 74]--The “rounding” follows.  After the cadence, the violas continue with a new upward-moving upbeat (instead of arching downward) leading into the coda, which is in the character, major mode, and slow tempo of Variation 5.
7:01 [m. 78]--Coda.  The second cello lands on a low E, which it sustains as a “pedal point” through most of the coda.  The violas, at first, continue with the arching arpeggios, although the second adds syncopation.  The first violin takes the lead with its own slower, expressive line, which is also syncopated.  The first cello plays two-note, then four-note upward arpeggios before slowly descending.  Finally, the second violin enters, harmonizing with the first on descents.  The first viola breaks from the arpeggios, moving to halting downward octave leaps.  The second viola harmonizes the first cello, then drops out.  The volume builds toward a climax.  Now the second violin and first viola join on the arpeggios.  They work upward under the soaring first violin.  The second viola re-enters with the halting downward octave leaps.
7:29 [m. 82]--At the climax, the first violin has reached a high point and lingers there with slow syncopated notes.  The instruments change roles again.  Now the first viola supports the first violin with straight notes about an octave below.  The second violin joins the second viola on an oscillating motion.  The first cello continues to slowly descend.  Finally, the first violin works downward, and the volume begins to recede.  The first viola and first cello are in contrary motion with each other as the latter turns upward again.  The second violin abandons the oscillations, leaving them to second viola, and now doubles the first cello.
7:53 [m. 85]--The first violin finally reaches a cadence, which Brahms marks with a molto ritardando slowing.  The other instruments come together under this cadence.  The second cello finally abandons its long-held low E pedal point.  Trailing after the cadence, the violas play a tender reminiscence of the harmonized arching motion typical of Variation 5.  At the same time, the first cello plays the rising fourth from the opening gesture of the theme.  The arpeggios are then played by the two cellos under the rising fourth from the first violin.  The violas and cellos, moving down and up an octave respectively, exchange the arpeggios again, with the rising fourth in the second violin, then both violins in octaves.  The cellos extend their arpeggio down to the final cadence.  The violins have reached the high E from their rising fourth, and the violas enter to complete the harmony on the serene, sustained final chord.
8:33--END OF MOVEMENT [87 mm.]

4th Movement: Poco Allegro (Sonata-Allegro form with abbreviated recapitulation). G MAJOR, 9/8 time.

0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1, Part 1.  With quiet intensity, the violins and first viola begin the harmonized measured tremolo-like figures that dominate the first part of the theme.  The rapid repeated notes reach up to outline a melody.  The key is ambiguous, suggesting A minor or E minor rather than G major.  The violins break from the tremolo for a descent, and the other three instruments enter.  The cellos, in succession, come in with the tremolo figures, including the upward leaps, in a sort of imitation.  Finally, all six instruments build up and essentially join together on the tremolo figures with their melodic leaps, and G major is established.  Scales are heard in the lower instruments.  The volume recedes and quickly builds again.
0:09 [m. 5]--In a two-measure transition, the violins, in thirds, plunge downward in scale motion as the two violas and second cello begin a pulsing long-short motion on repeated notes.  This continues for a measure after the violins drop out.  The volume rapidly diminishes.
0:14 [m. 7]--Theme 1, Part 2.  This is really the principal melody, and the tremolo motion could be seen as introductory except for its huge role in the development section.  The warm, noble melody is presented by first violin and first cello in harmony.  The pulsing motion continues in first viola and second cello.  Beginning with repeated notes, these pulsations gradually move, including leaping octaves in the first viola.  After two measures, the first cello joins the pulsations, leaving the melody to the first violin, which adds a trill-like ornament.  The end of the first phrase overlaps with the beginning of the second. 
0:24 [m. 11]--In the second phrase, the first viola begins a counterpoint to the first violin, leaving the pulsations to the cellos.  The trill decoration is heard again.  Longer notes are introduced in the swaying motion, gradually rising.  At the end of the phrase, the second viola finally enters, joining the pulsations, and the first viola slips away from the first violin to join them as well.  The second violin is absent for this entire initial presentation.
0:34 [m. 15]--The cadence overlaps again.  The theme is interrupted by a return to the “melody” of the first part, but now it is stripped of the tremolo motion, laying bare the actual leaping gestures, which emphasize short-long rhythms.  It also turns to the minor key.  The violins (the second entering) and first viola pass the gestures to the second viola and cellos.  The entry of the lower instruments overlaps with a new closing gesture (in second violin and first viola) decorated by a brief trill.  The overlapping exchanges continue through a second statement at a higher level that briefly suggests A minor.  The lower instruments do not have the decorated closing gesture a second time, as the overlapping entries are cut off at this point.
0:45 [m. 19]--The violas drop out.  The violins and cellos return to the character of the gently swaying melody from the main (second) part of the theme.  In pleasing harmony and in alternation, they undulate down and back up.  The violins then reach up in long-short rhythms as the cellos play a harmonized ascending scale with mild syncopation.  The roles are then reversed as the violins descend in harmony.  The cellos convert the long-short rhythm to a syncopation.
0:55 [m. 23]--The first viola enters, providing the main melody in an contrapuntal epilogue to the theme.  The second viola is still absent.  The second cello settles on a low repeated pulsation on a “pedal point” G.  The epilogue begins very gently.  After two measures, the first violin reaches up another octave, as does the second cello pedal point.  Suddenly, the intensity builds and the epilogue is extended by two measures.  The violins reach high with mild syncopation.  The second cello abandons the pedal point, joining the motion of the first.  The harmony lurches toward the “dominant” chord in the unexpected key of B major.
1:10 [m. 29]--Transition.  It begins in B major and is based on the tremolo first part of Theme 1.  The tremolo gestures themselves return in the second violin and two violas, complete with the accented melodic leaps from the beginning.  The first violin joins above with the melody.  Scale descents are passed from second violin and first viola to the two cellos, then back to the previous instruments, who ascend.  This last exchange with the cellos is repeated, with the second violin moving up an octave.  The second viola joins the first cello on a descent, then the second violin and first viola join the first violin.  They key moves toward D major, the expected secondary key, and the volume builds.  Finally, the violas and first cello descend, and all instruments land on the “dominant” chord in D major.
1:19 [m. 33]--Theme 2.  The violins establish a high, decorative leaping motion for one measure.  Then the first cello enters with the new melody itself, a swinging, boisterous tune in its upper register.  The first violin continues with the high decorative leaping motion.  The violas play plucked two-note descents, and the second cello adds a solid bass (D major).
1:31 [m. 38]--The second violin enters, taking up the cello melody at a softer level.  It begins like a repetition.  The first violin abandons the high leaping figures for scale descents, and the first viola and second cello play the now-ascending two-note plucked figures.  Suddenly, the second violin melody falters as the second viola joins with a plucked descending arpeggio.  The first violin plunges further downward.  The second violin attempts to re-establish itself a third lower, but it falters in the same way and the first violin falls even more as the volume once again builds.  Finally, the first violin takes the lead with its plunging descent and is joined by the first viola.  The second violin joins the plucked arpeggio in second viola and first cello.
1:42 [m. 43]--The violins drop out, and the lower instruments suddenly make a mysterious drop to the note C-natural, seemingly moving away from D major.  The effect, with its sudden quietness, is like the bottom dropping out.  Over held notes in first viola and second cello, the first cello, then the first violin play downward arching figures in the character of Theme 2.  These suggest a motion back to G major.   These continue through another measure as second violin and second viola join in slow harmonies.  The colorful chromatic note E-flat is introduced.
1:50 [m. 46]--The two measures with the faltering melody and plunging scale are revisited.  This time, the melody is transferred from second violin to first violin, and the scales are in the first viola.  All three “second” instruments play more isolated plucked notes against the faltering melody.  The first cello briefly pauses.  After the two statements, wherein D major is again asserted, the volume builds, and the huge descent is heard again, even more fully scored, with all instruments bowed.
1:58 [m. 49]--As before, the bottom drops out with the note C-natural, now in all instruments.  This time, it does in fact herald a full motion back to G for the exposition repeat.  The second violin and second viola hold the C-natural.  A mysterious open fifth on A and E is heard in the first viola, then the first violin.  The second viola drops out, while the second violin continues to hold the C.  This creates an A-minor chord.  In the first ending (m. 51a), the chord is heard again, even more quietly.  The A-minor chord confirms the suggestion of A minor at the very beginning of the movement, and smoothly leads into the repeat.
2:06 [m. 1]--Theme 1, Part 1, as at the beginning, with tremolo figures.
2:15 [m. 5]--Two-measure transition, as at 0:09.
2:20 [m. 7]--Theme 1, Part 2.  Warm, noble melody, as at 0:14.
2:30 [m. 11]--Second phrase, as at 0:24.
2:41 [m. 15]--Version of Part 1 without tremolo and with overlapping entries, as at 0:34.
2:51 [m. 19]--Undulating version of melody, as at 0:45.
3:01 [m. 23]--Epilogue and extension, as at 0:55.
3:16 [m. 29]--Transition beginning in B major based on tremolo first part of theme, as at 1:10.
3:25 [m. 33]--Theme 2 in D major presented by first cello after introductory measure, as at 1:19.
3:37 [m. 38]--Second violin statement of Theme 2, then faltering with plunging descents, as at 1:31.
3:49 [m. 43]--Mysterious drop and arching figures suggesting return to G major, as at 1:42.
3:57 [m. 46]--Restatement of faltering melody and plunging scale, as at 1:50.
4:04 [m. 49]--Mysterious drop and transition, as at 1:59.  The second ending (m. 51b) still has the A-minor chord, but it is more full scored, including the second viola, and the first violin fifth is an octave higher. 
4:12 [m. 52]--The development section begins with a short fugal passage based on the opening tremolo figures.  The second violin emerges from the chord, playing the opening melodic line on its own.  It quickly diverges into arching figures derived from the scale descents.  The first violin then enters above it.  It adds a wider leap (a fifth instead of a fourth) to the initial melodic gesture, then continues as had the second violin, a fifth higher.  Under this, the second violin continues its figuration, then moves to slower leaping gestures.  The key of E minor (“relative” to G major) is established.
4:20 [m. 56]--The first viola enters with the original theme, doubled below by the first cello, who plucks it in a bare version without the tremolo.  The violins continue above with figuration.  The slower leaping gestures pass to the first violin.  The harmony moves quickly, though A minor and B minor and toward D major.  The violins and first viola come together, and the second viola enters, taking over briefly from the first cello.  These two instruments also come together, the first cello taking the bow.  There is a buildup, and the expected arrival on D major is highly unstable as the music keeps pressing forward.
4:31 [m. 61]--At the climax, the first violin leads the thematic material in its original tremolo form, and is immediately joined by the first cello, who also plays in tremolo.  The other instruments play the bare short-long rhythms, contributing to the harmony (the second cello doubling the tremolo bass of the first an octave below).  This is very unstable, moving through a string of minor keys, each of which heavily emphasizes its own “dominant.”  These keys move down stepwise in each measure, from B minor through A minor, and finally to G minor, the minor-key version of the home key.  The G-minor arrival is prolonged, with much emphasis on the “dominant” harmony of D and the “subdominant” on C.  The first violin reaches high, and other instruments, the second violin and second viola, join the tremolo motion.:
4:42 [m. 66]--Suddenly, the climax abates and the tremolo is breathlessly isolated in pairs of instruments.  A series of alternations in these pairs follows in two descending waves of three alternations each.  The two violins typically alternate with another pair.  In the first “wave,” the first alternation is with the two violas, and the two following ones, which leap downward, are with the first viola and first cello.  The pairs play in thirds in this “wave.”  In the second “wave,” the pairs play in octaves.  The alternations are similar, but in the second and third, the first cello is replaced by the second, and in the third, the second violin by the first cello.  The second “wave” diminishes in volume and moves toward D minor.
4:51 [m. 70]--The second part of Theme 1, the actual “main melody,” takes over.  This is really an extended “re-transition,” since the recapitulation begins with this melody.  It is harmonized in second violin and first viola.  It appears to be played in a mixture of D minor and D major, but G minor asserts itself in the second measure.  The melody is decorated by octave tremolo interjections in first violin and second viola.  After two measures, while the second violin holds a note, the first viola is joined by the second in a brief arching, modulating bridge.  The second cello adds a brief tremolo on a fifth, and the first violin tremolo shadows the viola bridge.  The entire three-measure pattern is then stated in B-flat major (relative to G minor).
5:05 [m. 76]--The “re-transition” character of the mysteriously transformed theme becomes more pronounced.  The previous viola bridge at first leads to F-sharp, but the second violin again joins the first viola, and the “bridge” figure is used to re-assert G minor.  It winds its way downward.  The first violin has two octave tremolo interjections, then drops out.  The second cello has four such interjections on a fifth, then fourths.  The second viola adds brief answers to the downward-winding lines in the second violin and first viola.  The first cello, which has been relatively inactive through this re-transition, only plucking at key points, continues that role.  The fourth measure of this passage is a repetition of the third.
5:14 [m. 80]--Theme 1, Part 2, as at 0:14 and 2:20 [m. 7].  It emerges so naturally from the preceding re-transition that it is almost unnoticeable.  The change from G minor to G major is also subtle.  The first part of the theme, with the tremolo figures, was prominent in the development, and it is omitted here.
5:24 [m. 84]--Second phrase, as at 0:24 and 2:30 [m. 11].
5:35 [m. 88]--Version of Theme 1, Part 1 without the tremolo and with overlapping entries, as at 0:34 and 2:41 [m. 15].
5:45 [m. 92]--Undulating version of melody, as at 0:45 and 2:51 [m. 19].
5:56 [m. 96]--Epilogue and extension, as at 0:55 and 3:01 [m. 23].  The first four measures and most of the fifth measure follow the exposition without change.  At the end of the fifth measure, the first violin leaps down to the lower octave.  Other than this, the sixth measure is also largely the same, but at the very end, the lurch toward B major is diverted, and the buildup lands on the “dominant” harmony in the home key.
6:11 [m. 102]--Theme 2.  The entire transition passage based on Part 1 is omitted.  Theme 2 is stated in the home key of G major.  It is now given to the first viola instead of the first cello.  The other instruments largely maintain their previous roles from 1:19 and 3:25 [m. 33].  The first violin has the leaping decoration, the second cello the solid bass.  The plucked two-note descents are now in the second violin and second viola.  The first cello plays in the rhythm of these, doubling the second cello bass an octave above.
6:22 [m. 107]--Analogous to 1:31 and 3:37 [m. 38].  The scoring is changed.  While the second violin still has the thematic material, it is skeletal in nature.  Downward arpeggios are plucked.  The two-note plucked figures, now repeated notes, are in the two violas and second cello.  The first violin still has the scale descents.  The “faltering melody,” however, is passed to the first viola, which bows it.  The second violin continues with plucked arpeggios.  The climactic plunging descent is scored largely as in the exposition.
6:35 [m. 112]--Analogous to 1:42 and 3:49 [m. 43].  The bottom now “drops out” to the note F-natural.  The scoring is similar to the exposition, except that the arching figures that were in the first cello are now in the first viola.  The suggested key is C major, and the “colorful” chromatic note is A-flat.
6:42 [m. 115]--Analogous to 1:50 and 3:57 [m. 46].  The faltering melody is in the first violin, as in the exposition, but the scales are in the second violin instead of the first viola.  The first cello now participates in the plucked notes.  The climactic plunging descent is again very similar, but the second violin and first viola again reverse roles and the second cello does not participate.  The second viola and first cello are plucked, making it less assertive than before.  G major is reasserted. 
6:49 [m. 118]--Now something unexpected happens.  The previous transition, either to the exposition repeat or to the development, is replaced by an extension of the plunging descents.  Two more are played, over a bass in the second cello that descends by half-steps, building on the drop from F-sharp to F-natural heard before.  In these descents, the first violin is the only instrument playing the scales.  All the other instruments are bowed except the second viola, who plays plucked chords.  The first viola also plays chords instead of arpeggios, but they are bowed.  In the first descent of the extension, the first violin begins a third lower, and the suggested key is D minor.  In the second, the first violin reaches high, above where it was before, and the suggested key is C minor.
6:54 [m. 120]--Transition to Coda.  The home key of G is again asserted, but it is the minor-key version.  The violins meander narrowly, supported by the second cello bass.  The second viola continues its plucked chords, supported by the first cello.  The first viola meditates on the downward-arching figures.  After two measures, there is another harmonic shift, toward the “Neapolitan” chord, A-flat major.  Finally, the violins introduce more new material, an expressive harmonized phrase that, for the first time, introduces “straight” rhythm (in the form of “duplets”) superimposed on the triple-division based 9/8 meter.  Against this, the first viola continues its arching triple-division figures.  G major is once again established.
7:07 [m. 125]--The meditation is interrupted by the sudden return of the last plunging descent from the extension.  It now begins on the downbeat, and is extended by a full third of a measure, resulting in a more precipitous plunge.  The second viola and first cello take the bow here.  The meditations follow, with the narrow meanderings and arching figures, but the roles are reversed.  The violas and cellos take over on the former, and the violins, second followed by the first, play the arching figures. 
7:18 [m. 129]--The expressive “straight” phrase follows in the second violin, with both violas now playing the undulating arpeggios.  It is now greatly extended, forming the basis of a buildup toward the coda.  The first violin soars above it, and the cellos play a smooth, steady bass under the undulating violas.  The second violin melody, still remaining in straight “duplet” rhythm, breaks into a trill, gradually increasing in speed.  The buildup merges into the large coda in faster tempo.
CODA – Animato
7:32 [m. 135]--The coda begins with a fugue-like passage similar to the beginning of the development section, but the key is centered on G major and its “dominant,” D major, from the beginning.  The second violin begins first with the tremolo, doubled below by the plucked second viola.  After two measures, the first violin, doubled by the plucked first viola, comes in above while the seconds continue with figuration, then slower leaping gestures.
7:40 [m. 139]--The cellos enter, the first in tremolo, the second plucked an octave below.  The upper instruments continue their figuration and leaps, the violas still plucked.  After one measure, the cellos drop out, and the upper instruments suddenly drop in volume.  They attempt to restart the theme again.  This two-measure sequence is then given again, this time veering toward A minor.  The cellos again enter with a surge of volume, then drop out as the upper instruments become suddenly hushed.
7:48 [m. 143]--The first violin leads out of the sequence with an extension of its figuration, focusing on downward-arching patterns.  The second viola and first cello briefly drop out.  The second violin, first viola, and second cello provide leaping support, the latter two still plucked.  The key moves through E major and D major.  The second viola and first cello re-enter as the volume builds.  Both violas and the second cello take their bows.  The key touches on C major, then strongly moves back home to G major.  At the top of the buildup, all instruments except the second cello join in the tremolo motion.
7:56 [m. 147]--All six instruments, including the second cello, now play the tremolo in a grand sequence based on the opening theme.  They move steadily upward, one step each in the first three measures.  In the fourth measure, they shoot up even faster.  The cellos abandon the tremolo and propel the other instruments forward with powerful three-note descents using a fast long-short (dotted) rhythm.  The continuous upward motion has shifted the key to the distant F major, a whole step below the main key, and a most unexpected arrival point.  This arrival on F is delayed, causing great anticipation, which is only heightened when the cellos expand their rapid dotted rhythms to a slower descent in the regular 9/8 flow.
8:08 [m. 153]--The music is suddenly quiet, and a series of exchanges in pairs of instruments using the repeated-note tremolo follows, similar to the passage at 4:42 [m. 66].  Again, there are two waves of three descending alternations, and the first is played in thirds.  This time, the first violin is paired with the first viola.  On the first alternation, they are joined by the second violin.  The first two alternations are with the second viola and first cello.  The third is with the two cellos.  This “wave” moves from F major to C major. 
8:12 [m. 155]--The second “wave” is in octaves, again with the first violin and first viola leading.  The first violin plays broken octaves instead of repeated notes on the first two alternations.  The “following” instruments are second violin and second viola, then second violin and first cello, and finally the two cellos (with the second plucking its last note instead of playing the tremolo).  This even quieter wave remains centered on C, but shifts to the minor.
8:16 [m. 157]--The first viola, with downward-arching figures supported by plucked notes in the second cello, leads into a return of the second part of Theme 1, the “main melody.”  This lead-in measure remains in C major, but when the violins enter in octaves with the melody, the key quickly moves back home to G.  The violins are followed and harmonized by the second viola and first cello, also playing in octaves.  The theme blossoms upward, building in volume.  The first viola continues its faster figuration, then expands to wide arpeggios, and the second cello continues its plucked bass foundation.
8:24 [m. 161]--The previous passage is presented again with new scoring, beginning quietly.  The first viola is joined by the second violin in the lead-in measure, and the second viola, bowed, plays the bass support, doubled above by the first violin.  When the melody enters, it is in unison from the cellos, and they are followed by the violins in octaves, a sort of role reversal from the previous statement.  The second violin leaves the faster figuration to the first viola, and the second viola quickly takes over for the second cello, passing the pulsing bass to the latter instrument.  Again, there is a joyous buildup.
8:33 [m. 165]--The first cello takes the lead in an exultant continuation, harmonized by second violin and second viola.  The first viola continues its faster figuration, then quickly moves to an oscillation, where it is joined by the second viola.  The first violin joins the first cello melody an octave above.
8:37 [m. 167]--At the climax, the opening tremolo figures return in second violin and first viola, and they are quickly joined by the first violin and second viola.  The cellos, in octaves, begin a leaping bass accompaniment.  After two measures, the two violins alternate on the familiar downward-arching figures, supported by isolated chords.  After two alternations, the violas support them with tremolo chords.
8:45 [m. 171]--In the final peroration, all instruments, at first using the familiar mildly syncopated rhythm from the opening tremolo melody, zigzag downward in unison.  The second violin and the violas use the tremolo, but the first violin and the cellos do not, making their leaps move forceful.  All six instruments then stall on a G-D alternation before landing on a unison downbeat G.  This is followed on the upbeat and the last downbeat by two punctuating G-major chords with rich double and triple stops.
8:57--END OF MOVEMENT [174 mm.]