Recording: London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas [Sony SK 47195]
Published 1860, revised 1875.

The Second Serenade was completed in 1859, Brahms having worked on it during his last season at the Detmold court, a year after the First Serenade and the First Piano Concerto.  The experience with those two pieces had been his first extended engagement with orchestral composition, and the results were mixed.  Audiences certainly embraced the serenade more warmly than the concerto (whose gestation and first performances were notoriously difficult), but its sprawling six-movement quasi-Mozartian layout would generate criticism.  The A-major work is more tightly argued and modest in proportion (around 32 minutes), and as far as its scoring is concerned, extremely innovative.  The designation “for small orchestra” refers to the complete absence of violins.  This naturally results in a largely wind-driven sound, but the retention of the lower strings lends the piece a warmth and richness that winds alone would not be able to provide.  The wind scoring itself is limited to pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and horns, with a piccolo added to the last movement.  The violas obtain prominence as the leading string voice, although the strings are generally placed in an accompanying role.  Brahms would later omit violins from the first movement of the German Requiem.  The challenges of balance, color, and overall sonic landscape Brahms created for himself with this ensemble, and his solutions to those challenges, certainly contributed to his growth as an orchestrator.  The five-movement structure has a pleasing symmetry, with a scherzo and a minuet framing the atmospheric and dark-hued slow movement.  The sonata-form first movement unfolds with restrained subtlety before flowering forth with its abundant triplet rhythms.  The exposition is not repeated, but Brahms gives the illusion of a repeat by starting the development section with the opening music (a device he most notably would employ in the Fourth Symphony).  The following scherzo movement in C major is short but exuberant, with the character of a village dance.  Its contrasting trio section in F is notable for the persistent “pedal point” C in the strings.  The central slow movement in A minor has a level of profundity almost incongruous to its surroundings.  The “movable ground bass” in the strings lends a mysterious sound that is mirrored in the wind melodies.  The broad 12/8 meter creates a sense of spaciousness.  The movement is cast in ternary form, but the two transitional passages are so extensive that it is almost a five-part design.  The first one intensifies the dark sound of the opening, such that the respite of the middle section in A-flat major is hard-earned.  The gentle, halting opening of the “quasi menuetto” in D major seems cautiously to lead out of the slow movement’s crepuscular milieu.  Its trio section in F-sharp minor returns to that mysterious realm, with isolated melodic notes from the oboe almost timidly poking out of a rustling background.  With the finale, in a tight sonata-rondo form, Brahms fully releases the bucolic, joyous pastoral exuberance that had been previewed in the scherzo movement.  The addition of the piccolo, whose piercing sound is given unusual prominence, lends the movement a radiant brilliance that banishes any lingering darkness from the slow movement.  The first performance in Hamburg in 1860 was a few weeks before that of the First Serenade.  The revisions in 1875 did not affect the structure or content and were primarily concerned with dynamics.

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck)

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke)

1st Movement: Allegro moderato (Sonata-Allegro form).  A MAJOR, Cut time [2/2].

0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1.  The clarinets and bassoons gently present the first four measures, in harmony and exactly doubled.  Two rising gestures are followed by a falling figure, then another rising leap.  The flutes enter and take over the leading voice in the fifth measure, playing more rising figures.  The horns enter at the same time, holding notes before gradually leaping down.  The clarinets and bassoons now provide counterpoint to the flutes and become independent of each other, the latter adding distinct downward trailing lines.  The phrase moves to the “dominant” harmony.
0:13 [m. 9]--The first flute and clarinet are doubled on the continuation, which is more smoothly flowing, still incorporating a distinctive downward leap.  The violas and cellos make their first entrance here in harmony, the violas initially echoing the opening clarinet/bassoon melody.  The flute drops out after four measures, and the clarinets take over with some gentle chromatic motion.  The violas and cellos still evoke the opening melody under this.  The clarinets arrive at a sighing cadence on the “dominant” E major, and this cadence is immediately echoed by the flutes, supported by an oboe.  The violas, supported by cellos, then have a longer, stretched out echo of the cadence figure, supported by bassoons and horns.
0:31 [m. 20]--The cellos now have a continually plucked “dominant” E as the flute and oboe spin out a melody in broad triplets and turn to the home “natural” minor key.  They are supported by the clarinets in clashing duple “straight” rhythm.  The flute holds a note, and the oboe drops out.  The melody with triplets continues, introducing the chromatic note D-sharp, arching leaps (including an octave leap on E), and mild syncopation within the measure.  The horn and bassoons support the continually plucked E in the cellos.  The flute melody closes off with a series of four winding triplet figures, and the cellos cut off their “straight” plucked E.  The clarinet, violas, and bowed cellos, in succession, echo this closing figure.
0:42 [m. 28]--Transition.  The clarinets and bassoons play their opening gesture, but they are cut off after two measures by the last triplet figure, now a ninth lower in the cellos.  The flute, oboes, and bassoons then play the opening figures at a new harmonic level, the “subdominant” D major.  After reaching the high point, a chord is held out as the cellos and basses (making their second entry after two notes that preceded the plucked cello E’s) pluck out upbeat-downbeat motion on D.  These plucked notes then move down to C-natural and finally to B (the “dominant” in E minor and major, where the Theme 2 complex will be set).
0:55 [m. 38]--Over a continually plucked B in the cellos in “straight” rhythm, the flutes again spin out the triplet figures, now fully in E major and at a stronger volume.  The oboes and bassoons provide supporting contrary-motion harmonies in clashing duple or “straight” rhythm.  The horns take over the upbeat-downbeat motion.  After two similar downward-winding patterns that each break with two sighing downward motions of a step and a leap, a third deviates with a “diminished seventh” harmony.  This last pattern cuts off as the violas enter on the upbeat for the following E-minor passage.  The target key center has arrived, but the material is not new.
1:09 [m. 48]--In E minor, the violas and clarinets play the sighing downward motion that had followed the triplet patterns.  The cellos move to E for their plucked notes, supported on downbeats by horns and basses.  The violas and first clarinet continue with the triplets while the first bassoon and second clarinet have “straight” downward motion.  The oboe joins for a second sequence.  Here the bass moves down to D and the sighing motion is played in G major (“relative” to E minor).  Instead of moving to the triplets, the oboe and horn hold a high F-sharp.  The clarinet and violas slide from C-natural to C-sharp and D-sharp, then to a descending “dominant” arpeggio while the plucked bass slides down from D to C-sharp, C-natural, and B.
1:22 [m. 58]--The oboe and horn slide up, then play an arching arpeggio in E major as the plucked bass again moves to E.  With the earlier motion, that bass now briefly breaks halfway through each measure.  The clarinet and violas respond to the oboe/horn arpeggio with a descent.  The previous pair play another arching arpeggio that incorporates a chromatic E-sharp and moves higher.  The bass slides to E-sharp and F-sharp.  The clarinet and violas play another descent that also shifts the pattern upward.  The oboe/horn pair then plays two arpeggios in a row that continue to shift up.  All of this is over an extended crescendo.
1:31 [m. 64]--The clarinet and violas respond again as the bass moves up to G.  This time, the descents continue two more bars, the plucked bass moves to G-sharp, A, and A-sharp, then the oboe and horn lead down to a hramonized arrival on B, the “dominant” note, where the bass also finally lands.  The volume rapidly diminishes.  The flutes now join the oboes in an ascent using double-dotted rhythm (exaggerated long-short).  This ascent leads to a strong cadence in E major, supported by clarinets, bassoons, horn, and all strings.  The arrival marks Theme 2, which is based on this double-dotted rhythm.
1:39 [m. 70]--Theme 2 (E major).  The strings, all plucked, establish a pattern of arpeggios where a bass downbeat is followed by upward motion in cellos and violas.  Against this, the clarinets, harmonized in thirds, play continuously rocking dolce motion in the exaggerated long-short (double-dotted) rhythm.  The clarinets gradually move upward, as do the plucked string arpeggios.  At the high point, the clarinet harmonies expand to include fifths and fourths.  They arch down, then again undulate with harmonies in thirds.  Also at the high point, the basses drop out, and the violas continue the arpeggios along before being joined by cellos.  The basses join again, and the original pattern returns before the arrival point.
1:55 [m. 81]--The clarinets descend to an arrival point on G-sharp minor, then flutes and bassoons take over the theme, also harmonized in thirds.  They are soon joined by the oboes.  The clarinets, who first presented the idea, take a break.  The theme works upward again, but then halts briefly at the high point, with the instruments holding two longer harmonies over bar lines and briefly swelling.  The first of these is a dissonant “tritone” and the second is a chromatic C-major intrusion.  The plucked string arpeggio pattern continues under all of this.  The winds descend in mild syncopation, and then the flutes lead to another arrival point, a descending arpeggio landing on a full and satisfying cadence with horn support.
2:10 [m. 92]--The plucked string arpeggio pattern continues.  Now the first oboe, supported harmonically by second oboe (on the downbeats) and first bassoon, has a chromatic descent in long notes moving halfway through each measure.  The harmonies follow this oboe descent, briefly suggesting the area of C and F.  This continues over six measures, with the oboe moving down by half-step from B to G, the volume swelling at the end.  At that point, the harmony is wrenched back toward E, where the oboes lead to another lilting cadence.
2:21 [m. 100]--The last pattern is presented again, now with a horn taking the prominent chromatic descent, supported by clarinets.  There is now an added leading element from the flute, a double-dotted upper neighbor figure played with the horn descent.  The oboe joins at the end and doubles the flute in the lilting cadence.
2:32 [m. 108]--There are now several reiterations of the last notes from the lilting cadence, the first two from the oboe with horn support and the next two from the bassoon with mildly dissonant flute support.  The fifth and sixth reiterations are from the clarinet, with the mildly dissonant support in the bassoons.  Finally, the two bassoons stretch out the figure, doubling it in length, and play it in overlap.  The plucked string arpeggio finally breaks at this point.  The bassoons are isolated on an octave E for a full measure, and then the violas enter with an open fifth on A and E, shifting back to A major and ending the exposition.
2:49 [m. 119]--The illusion is given of an exposition repeat.  The first eight measures of Theme 1 are played as at the beginning, with the same instrumentation, the only change being at the very end where a chord is held over a bar line and the arrival on “dominant” harmony is delayed by half a measure.  A transitional chord that had led to the following material is also omitted.  From that point, there is deviation, and the development properly begins.
3:00 [m.127]--After a plucked bass lead-in, the clarinets enter using the prominent triplet melody initially heard at 0:31 [m. 20], followed by the oboe and violas, with support from horn and bassoon.  A minor is suggested at first, but after a strong buildup and the entry of the flutes on a high C, there is more emphatic motion to F major.  The cellos enter, doubling the violas.  The triplets continue in wave-like arching motion, with brief digressions to harmonies suggesting G minor and B-flat major, but after the arrival of forte, F major is even more strongly hammered home.  This hammered arrival is reiterated, and a third repetition seems to begin, but it is diverted to a harmony on E-flat as the dynamic swells to fortissimo.
3:18 [m. 140]--The arching waves continue, shifting back to F major, which is confirmed by two powerful descents.  The flutes, oboes, and violas then play a syncopated arpeggio, still in the triplet rhythm, while the other instruments pulse.  The lower strings play a different and clashing hemiola pattern, also in triplet rhythm.  The violas and clarinets reiterate the previous powerful descents, but they become quieter.  The violas and clarinets, then the bassoons, trail down in the syncopated arpeggio.  The strings are then isolated with softer pulsations on F (the cellos and basses still in the clashing hemiola division).  These pulsations dip down a step to E-flat.
3:31 [m. 149]--The strings dip again to D-flat, then drop out.  In the key of D-flat major, the bassoons begin a gentle statement of Theme 1, and are joined after two measures by the clarinets, who take the lead.  The statement breaks off, and the flutes, in thirds, play the thematic rising gesture.  The violas, with plucked support from cellos and basses, enter gently with a diversion up another level to G-flat, as the clarinets play the rising gesture.  The violas emerge into the familiar winding triplet melody in G-flat, as the rising gesture is passed again from bassoons to clarinets, with oboes bridging to a flute gesture.
3:42 [m. 158]--Overlapping with the flute gesture, the violas begin another statement of the triplet melody, having risen from G-flat to A-flat minor.  The rising gestures are played by clarinets, then bassoons, then clarinets again, with oboes bridging to flutes doubled by clarinets.  The violas, now joined by cellos, seem to begin a third statement of the triplet melody in B-flat, but it is abbreviated.  Rising gestures are heard in clarinets, doubled by bassoons, with oboes again bridging to flutes doubled by clarinets.  The key shifts up to C major.  The shorter statement is heard a second time, shifting to D minor.  The clarinet/bassoon gesture is followed by the oboes, but the flute/clarinet gesture is omitted.
3:52 [m. 165]--Suddenly flowering in forte, the winds (without oboes, who drop out after holding their harmony) play upward arching gestures in straight rhythm and in D minor.  Meanwhile, the violas and cellos continue the triplet rhythm in a new, broadly sweeping form with descending octave leaps, rising arpeggios, and stepwise descents.  This is played twice in a descending sequence.  A third sequence seems to begin, but the rising arpeggio is isolated in a brief diversion to A minor.  The flutes and the entering oboes emerge in a forceful ascent harmonized in thirds, moving to triplet rhythm.  At the same time, the violas and cellos change to straight rhythm leading to another strong cadence in D minor.
4:04 [m. 173]--The volume is again fortissimo.  The horns make a powerful, blasting entrance as the flutes, oboes, and violas arch down and back up in triplet rhythm with octave leaps harmonized in thirds (except in the violas).  The clarinets and bassoons arch up against them in straight rhythm while the cellos and basses have slower octave leaps on D.  After two measures, the volume suddenly drops to piano, and the leaping figures are on F, harmonized as the “dominant” in B-flat major, the harmonic shift as abrupt as the dynamic one.  The clarinets move to a slow long-short pulsation, and the oboes drop out.  The whole pattern is given a second time.  The flutes and violas now continue, moving fully to B-flat as the bassoons join the clarinets.
4:18 [m. 183]--The oboe takes the lead in a colorful lead-in back to the home key.  It descends twice with a long F leading to a shorter E-flat and D-flat.  The harmonies in clarinets, bassoons, and horn suggest B-flat minor, then a preparatory “dominant” in G-flat.  Meanwhile, the violas continue their downward-arching triplets, incorporating fifths and fourths as well as octaves and supporting the wind harmony, as do held bass notes in lower strings.  The oboe then moves up in long notes from F to G to G-sharp, the underlying harmony suggesting motion toward F as the volume builds.  The bass line, meanwhile, slides from D-flat to C to B-flat.  The “outward” motion between oboe and bass (G-sharp and B-flat) arrives on A.
4:29 [m. 191]--Re-transition.  A major is established in a long transition over a long bass “pedal point” before the return of Theme 1.  The violas continue their arching triplets.  The oboe continues as the leading voice in a gently arching line after the colorful arrival, still supported by clarinets and bassoons.  The flute then takes over in response with a winding line in triplet rhythm, supported by oboes and horns.  This pattern is given a second time, with the oboe passing the melody to the flute triplets.  The harmonic motion is primarily on A major and its confirming “dominant.”
4:40 [m. 199]--The first note of the oboe line now moves down a step with a mild suggestion of the “subdominant” D.  This is confirmed with a gentle clarinet response, which is in straight rhythm, and new cello harmony.  The violas are still playing their arching triplets and the bass still holds on the “pedal” A.  The first two notes of the oboe line shift down another step, with “diminished” harmony moving to another confirmation of A major, and the response in straight rhythm is now in the cellos, shifted from the “subdominant” clarinet response.
4:50 [m. 207]--The entire previous pattern is stated a second time, but now the cellos have a more active line coming out of the response they have just played.  When the pattern reaches that cello response again, it is extended downward over two measures to lead into the recapitulation and the main theme, with the oboe adding gently rising thirds.  Through all of this, the basses have held their “pedal” A and the violas have maintained their arching triplets, though these viola triplets change to straight rhythm for this last cello extension, which also diminishes in volume.  This whole extended re-transition is an unusual prolongation of A major before the actual arrival of the recapitulation.
5:04 [m. 217]--Theme 1.  The first eight measures match the exposition, but in the first four of them, the theme is only played by bassoons without the oboes and, most significantly, the violas, returning to their persistent triplet rhythm from the development section, add a decorative line that shadows the thematic melody.  The harmonic motion at the ending of the phrase more closely matches the statement at the beginning of the development section from 2:49 [m. 114].
5:14 [m. 225]--The passage from 0:13 [m. 9] is omitted, and the one from 0:31 [m. 20] follows directly.  It mostly follows the pattern, except that the oboe doubles the “straight” clarinet line before it drops out instead of the flute melody in triplets.  The plucked cello E is now coupled with a leaping octave E from the violas, persisting in their triplet rhythm, which now matches the flute melody.  At the very end of the phrase, the last of the closing figures, the one from the cellos, makes a surprising change from the pattern, sliding up by half-step instead of echoing the three previous winding gestures.  This change leads into the new transition passage.  The violas finally cut off their continuous triplets at the closing figures.
5:25 [m. 233]--Transition.  The passage from 0:42 [m. 28] is replaced by a shorter bridge that omits the references to the opening.  The cello’s sliding change to the triplet pattern has shifted the harmonic implication, and the original triplet figure is played in overlap by flute, clarinet, and violas on G.  The cellos, now with horn, slide up again from G to B.  The same overlapping entries follow, now brought up a half-step to land on G-sharp.  The violas now continue, harmonizing the cellos a sixth above as they slide up again from B to D.  The oboes in harmony double both the violas and cellos.  This leads to the following music, which is up a fourth from the exposition, the sequence having led back to A major.
5:31 [m. 237]--Analogous to 0:55 [m. 38].  The plucked notes in the cellos, with doubling on downbeats and upbeats from basses, is now on E.  The triplet figures are now spun out by the principal oboe instead of the flutes.  The supporting harmonies in clashing “duple” rhythm are in second oboe and bassoons.  The horn joins these harmonies on the second winding pattern, breaking briefly from the upbeat-downbeat punctuation.  The “diminished seventh” harmony arrives with the third pattern, as before, cutting off before the following passage, which is now in A minor.
5:44 [m. 247]--Analogous to 1:09 [m. 48].  The violas and clarinets play the sighing downward motion in A minor, joined here by bassoons.  The plucked cellos move to A.  The violas are now joined by first bassoon on the triplets while the clarinets and second bassoon have the “straight” downward motion.  The flutes join for the second sequence instead of the oboe.  The bass moves to G-natural, and the sighing motion is played in C major.  The high note, now a B, is held by flute and clarinet with lower harmony.  The violas are now joined by cellos with the sliding motion from F to F-sharp to G-sharp and the descending “dominant” arpeggio, the plucked descent (G, F-sharp, F-natural, E) now in basses supported by second bassoon.
5:58 [m. 257]--Analogous to 1:22 [m. 58].  The flute and clarinet (instead of oboe and horn) slide up, then play the arching arpeggio in A major as the plucked bass again moves to A.  The bass breaks in each measure as before.  The responding descent is from violas and cellos.  The next arching arpeggio includes a chromatic A-sharp.  The bass slides to A-sharp and B.  The next descent follows from violas and cellos.  The flute/clarinet pair play two further arpeggios shifting up as before.  As before, there is a long buildup.
6:06 [m. 263]--Analogous to 1:31 [m. 64].   The violas and cellos have the response as the basses move up to C.  These responding descents continue as the bass shifts to C-sharp, D, and D-sharp.  The flute and clarinets now lead to the arrival on the harmonized “dominant” note E, and the bass also lands there.  The ascent in double-dotted rhythm is played by flutes and clarinets, with the clarinets harmonizing the flutes (previously the flutes and oboes doubled the melody and harmony).  This leads to a strong cadence in A major marking the arrival of Theme 2.
6:15 [m. 269]--Theme 2 (A major).  Analogous to 1:39 [m. 70].  The entire arpeggio pattern is now played by the bassoons instead of plucked strings.  The rocking dolce motion in double-dotted rhythm is now shifted to the violas and cellos (with bows) harmonized in thirds.  The patterns continue as in the exposition with this greatly altered instrumentation, the bassoons continuing to take all the original plucked string material and the violas and cellos continuing as the clarinets had done before.
6:30 [m. 280]--Analogous to 1:55 [m. 81]--The violas and cellos descend to the expected arrival point, now on C-sharp minor.  The continuation of the theme is now taken by the original instruments, the clarinets, at the point where flutes and bassoons had played it before.  The clarinets are supported by the horns, who intermittently play in thirds with them, and bassoons provide foundational support.  The arpeggio pattern is now in plucked strings, as in the exposition.  At the high point, the flutes join, supplanting the horns, and the two harmonies are held over bar lines as expected.  The dissonant tritone is followed by the chromatic intrusion, now F major.  The syncopated descent is followed by the full cadence.  The oboes are absent.
6:46 [m. 291]--Analogous to 2:10 [m. 92]--The first oboe once again leads the chromatic descent in long notes, but it is now supported by the clarinets, the first clarinet playing on downbeats.  The areas of F and B-flat are suggested.  The oboe now moves down by half-step from E to C.  The harmony is forced back to A major, with the lilting cadence from oboe and clarinets.  The plucked string arpeggios continue, the violas having added rolled chords that were not indicated in the exposition.
6:58 [m. 299]--Analogous to 2:21 [m. 100]--The last pattern is presented again, but instead of the horn taking over the chromatic descent, the oboe has it again, now doubled by second oboe.  Clarinets and bassoons provide support.  The flute has a double-dotted upper neighbor figure, as before.  Flutes, oboes, and clarinets are all doubled on the lilting cadence.
7:10 [m. 307]--Analogous to 2:32 [m. 108]--The flute now has the first two reiterations of the last notes from the cadence, with oboe support.  The next two are from the clarinet with flute support, all a change from the exposition.  The fifth and sixth are from the horn with clarinet support, the horn providing a fresh new sound here.  The stretched out, overlapping figures are now played by one bassoon and one horn.  The plucked string arpeggios break here as expected.  The bassoon and horn are isolated on an octave A for a measure.  Instead of the open fifth heard from the violas that ended the exposition, an oboe now joins the bassoon and horn on the A for another held measure.  This leads directly into the coda.
7:28 [m. 318]--The horn, then the bassoon drop out, leaving the oboe to hold the sustained A.  The violas and cellos then enter in harmony with the opening gesture from the main theme and a colorful shift to F major.  As they do, the oboe moves from the A and spins out an expressive line that leaps up before descending on a “dominant” arpeggio in F (the harmony also held by the strings), adding chromatic half-steps at the end.  The harmony then shifts again to a “dominant” based on A but suggesting D (minor or major).  The bassoons enter with a single Theme 1 gesture, and the oboe reaches up to play the descending “dominant” arpeggio in D, again with the chromatic half-steps at the end.
7:40 [m. 324]--The clarinet and oboe have two identical exchanges, the clarinet dipping a third and rising a half-step, then the oboe reaching up a ninth and falling a step.  Under these exchanges, the strings and bassoons have active harmonic motion.  The familiar Theme 1 gesture is passed between the violas/cellos in harmony and the bassoons in harmony.  The string bass line descends from D to C to B-flat, then a half-step to A.  The harmony begins with D minor, then moves through B-flat to F.  The volume is quiet.
7:47 [m. 328]--There are now two more clarinet/oboe exchanges, the first a fifth higher than the previous two.  The clarinet figures are as before, but the oboe now imitates the clarinet a step lower and then extends the line, rising with chromatic half-step motion.  The second exchange is a step lower than the first.  The viola/cello group and the bassoons still alternate on their gestures, but the bassoons hold their upper notes through a measure as the oboe completes the extended line.  The basses now descend by half-step through A-flat G (extended), G-flat, and F (extended).  The harmony moves from F major and minor through implied C through E-flat minor and implied B-flat.
7:59 [m. 334]--After a half-measure pause, the woodwinds come together with cellos and basses on a colorful chord (a so-called “augmented sixth” sonority).  The clarinets and bassoons, both in octaves, move as the others hold the chord over a bar line, the clarinets down and the bassoons up.  The chord is reiterated, and then all the instruments become active with a strong crescendo.  The flute and oboe rise together an octave apart, holding notes over bar lines, while the low strings descend, at first by half-step and then, after a leap, by step.  The clarinets and bassoons, after holding, move down together in thirds.  A horn enters at the high point.  The chords move through harmonies from A minor to G major to the “dominant” E.
8:10 [m. 339]--At the high point, the volume reaches forte, and the “dominant” harmony leads to a soaring A-major cadence led by flute and oboe, with an octave leap in the cellos and basses and internal motion from second oboe and bassoon.  The volume rapidly diminishes again, and the flute and oboes trail down at the cadence.  As they do, the cellos and basses begin the familiar rocking double-dotted rhythm from Theme 2.  At the same time, the clarinets and bassoons play the rising gesture from Theme 1.  The oboes follow with that gesture as the rocking cellos and basses move down from A to G-natural.  In a second exchange, as the low strings drop to F-sharp and F-natural, the violas and clarinets are followed by oboes.
8:22 [m. 345]--The rocking low strings drop to E and then D-sharp as the clarinets have a new figure harmonized in thirds, with harmonic support from bassoons and horn.  They rise an octave, then the top note drops a half-step, creating a “diminished seventh” harmony with the other instruments.  As the rocking strings continue to drop, now to D-natural and C-sharp, the first oboe rises a fifth and drops a step, all instruments landing on an A-major harmony.  All of this is over another crescendo.
8:29 [m. 349]--The low strings end their descent, and now play a downward neighbor-note figure, still in the double-dotted rhythm, starting on B.  A short descent from oboe and bassoon, harmonized in sixths, is repeated, and then those instruments, now forte, leap up to another descent as the neighbor figure in the low strings leaps up to E.  The violas play punctuating harmonies halfway through each bar, and a clarinet and second bassoon provide support for the oboe/bassoon melody.  The volume diminishes quickly to piano.
8:38 [m.353]--A rising chromatic note in the oboe melody is held through a bar line and rises, as the basses and second bassoon drop to A with the rocking motion and the flutes play the rising Theme 1 gesture.  The clarinets follow with the gesture, and the rocking motion, now on G-natural, is played by violas and cellos.  A second flute/clarinet exchange is played on different harmonies, and the underlying motion in strings and second bassoon moves from A to F-natural. 
8:43 [m. 357]-- The pattern from 8:22 [m. 345] is played by the flutes and oboes, with additional harmonies from clarinets, bassoons, and an entering horn, the rocking alternation moving from basses on A to violas and cellos on D-sharp, again to basses on A, and then violas and cellos on C-sharp.  The melodies and harmonies in the winds follow the pattern, including the “diminished seventh,” and there is another crescendo.
8:50 [m. 361]--The descent from 9:29 [m. 349] follows as expected, but a melodic alternation of the top note from D to D-sharp creates a brief shift to E major.  The descent is led by flutes and horn, doubled and supported by oboe, clarinets, and bassoons.  The neighbor-note figure, now in all strings, is on the same notes as it was previously (B and E).  After the descent is repeated a third higher, the flutes drop out, and the remaining winds and horn, forte, with the altered note moving back down to D-natural, lead a new continuation of the line to another A-major cadence as the volume rapidly diminishes to the piano level.
8:58 [m. 365]--The low strings have settled on A, with motion on the upbeats down to the “leading” G-sharp.  The violas drop out.  Flutes and oboes have a gentle upward motion in the double-dotted rhythm, harmonized in thirds.  They are followed by the clarinets in sixths, then the bassoons in thirds, then the clarinets in sixths an octave lower than before.
9:07 [m. 369]--The final pianissimo gesture has the harmony in flutes, bassoons, and violas rising, then holding over two bar lines, the violas leaping up before the second bar line.  The low string bass line moves to G-sharp on the first downbeat between these two held harmonies, creating a ‘half-diminished seventh” chord.  After the low strings move back to A on the second downbeat between the held harmonies, the flutes and bassoons move back down to the last A-major harmony, the violas leaping back down.  This progression is a variant of the “plagal” cadence.  This final harmony, with the melodic note on the fifth of the chord (E) is repeated on the downbeat to end the movement in an extremely calm and serene mood.
9:21--END OF MOVEMENT [372 mm.]

2nd Movement: Scherzo - Vivace; Trio (Scherzo and Trio).  C MAJOR, 3/4 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  All instruments start forcefully with the two-note upbeat that pervades the whole scherzo, the melody leaping up.  The flutes, clarinets, and bassoons, supported by horns, then continue more gently with distinctive turning figures harmonized in thirds, two short notes preceding a longer one.  After two of these, the strings and oboes forcefully enter again with the upbeat figure, and the turning figures follow once again. 
0:04 [m. 5]--Another upbeat figure shifts to the “dominant” G major.  All woodwinds continue with leaping octaves using figures with two repeated notes, accenting the top note, and holding its repetition over a bar line.  Leaping string octaves, also with repeated-note units, dovetailing from low to high, punctuate the held note, and the winds descend to a cadence in G.  The material from the leaping wind octaves is then repeated, including the punctuating string octaves.  After the second cadence, the clarinets, harmonized in sixths, descend with the turning figures, and lead back from G major.  The bassoons quickly join the clarinets.  The transition is supported by horns and leaping viola octaves.
0:10 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  Two-note upbeats and turning figures, as before.
0:14 [m. 5]--Shift to G major, leaping octaves with descents to cadence, then transition away from G.
0:21 [m. 11]--Part 2.  The two-note upbeat now leads to a different downbeat.  The turning figures and their repetition after another upbeat are now heard in A minor (“relative” to C major), from the same instruments.  The strings now play throughout, with violas followed by cellos, then basses on both statements.  The strings drop out as the winds continue, using the pervasive two-note slurs to rise and fall, moving to D major and reaching a cadence there.  In another quick transition, the strings again enter with leaping octaves dovetailing from low to high on D.  Oboes and bassoons take up the leaping octaves on G, leading to the original upbeat in C major.
0:30 [m. 19]--The first four measures of Part 1 are played again, with stronger scoring on the initial upbeat.  The next upbeat follows, seeming to lead to G major as before, but it is cut off by leaping octaves in violas and cellos.  These slide up from G to G-sharp (strengthened by oboes as they do), preparing a shift to a different, unexpected key.
0:35 [m. 25]--The upbeats and turn figures are now played vigorously in E major (complete with a key signature change), the volume reaching fortissimo.  The strings drop out, and the winds continue with falling figures, harmonized in thirds and sixths, leading to a full cadence in E major like the previous cadences in G and D.  The string transition in leaping octaves now moves quickly from E to G, leading again to the original C-major upbeat.
0:43 [m. 33]--The first four measures of Part 1 are played again, now with stronger, more exuberant scoring.  In addition to strings playing throughout, the horns now join prominently on the turning figures.  The next upbeat does not lead to G major, but briefly points to F, which is treated simply as the “subdominant” in the home key of C.  The leaping wind octaves with notes held over bar lines are now played in C major and with string participation throughout.  As before, two leaping gestures are followed by descents to a cadence, now in C instead of G.  The final C is reiterated in a dovetailing descent through the woodwinds from high to low, the violas intruding between clarinets and bassoons.
0:54 [m. 43]--In a two-bar transition to the Trio section, the strings, with cellos followed by dovetailing violas in two-beat units obscuring the bar line, begin a “pedal point” on a low C using the familiar repeated-note figure.  They are marked leggiero.
TRIO (F major)
0:56 [m. 45]--Part 1.  Although the Trio is in F major, it is underpinned throughout by a “pedal point” on the “dominant” C, with violas and cellos continuing the pattern started in the transition.  The basses add punctuation, at first separated by two bars and then, from the fifth bar, on every downbeat.  The Trio theme itself is presented by clarinets and bassoons harmonized in sixths.  They begin with an upbeat held over a bar line, then continue with an expressive descending line.  This leaps up to a long-short rhythm followed by the descending line in two rising sequences.  They are supported by a horn, which briefly joins the melody in the last sequence.  The oboes then take over in a rising line leading to a “dominant” arrival on C.
1:05 [m. 45]--Part 1 repeated.
1:13 [m. 53]--Part 2.  The “pedal point” strings continue without the basses.  The clarinets lead on an upward arpeggio that shifts to F minor.  They are harmonized in sixths and quickly pass the arpeggio to the oboes in thirds.  The clarinets continue with a sighing gesture after the oboes enter, and the oboes also imitate this.  Still in F minor, an oboe and both clarinets wind their way down in a zigzag pattern with chromatic notes, including a “Phrygian” G-flat, reaching an F-minor cadence with the clarinets trailing.
1:21 [m. 61]--The flute enters and takes the lead with the oboe, harmonized by clarinets and bassoons.  The basses again join the string “pedal point” as before.  Shifting back to major, the flute and oboe are doubled on a version of the melodic line from Part 1.  It starts a fifth higher than it was there, then expands a step on the two rising sequences to a sixth and a seventh above where it was in Part 1.  The second flute joins.  A buildup leads to a sighing gesture and cadence in the flutes, the other winds trailing.  After a descending flute arpeggio, the cadence is reiterated an octave lower for the first ending (m. 70a).
1:32 [m. 53]--Part 2 repeated.  Passage in F minor, as at 1:13.
1:40 [m. 61]--Closing phrase and cadence in F major, as at 1:21.  In the second ending (m. 70b), the sighing gesture is reiterated before the second cadence, which merges into the transition.
1:51 [m. 71]--Transition to reprise of Scherzo.  The flutes lead the harmonized winds down an arpeggio as the string “pedal point” breaks and the patterns plunge down, outlining the F-major chord.  The strings then keep up their rhythmic patterns, but oscillate between G and F.  Flutes, clarinets, and bassoons play two alternations of the “dominant” chord in C major (based on G) and the F-major chord.  The strings then shoot up an octave on G and are imitated by a wind group of the horn, bassoon, and clarinet.  This imitation is reiterated twice, the second time expanded as the strings and winds play their octave leaps in opposite directions.  There is a strong crescendo, and the partial m. 80 leads into the upbeat of the main Scherzo.
2:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Two-note upbeats and turning figures, as at the beginning and 0:10.
2:04 [m. 5]-- Shift to G major, leaping octaves with descents to cadence, then transition away from G, as at 0:04 and 0:14.  The repeat is omitted in the reprise.
2:10 [m. 11]--Part 2.  Passage beginning in A minor, moving to D major and then back toward C major, as at 0:21.
2:18 [m. 19]--First four measures of Part 1 with stronger scoring, then shift toward E major, as at 0:30.
2:24 [m. 25]--Passage in E major with buildup to fortissimo, then motion back to C major, as at 0:35.
2:32 [m. 33]--First four measures of Part 1 with strong horn support, then closing in C major, as at 0:43.  A sign indicating a jump to the coda comes before the two-bar transition that led into the Trio, and a version of that transition will begin the coda.
2:42 [m. 81]--The string “pedal point” on C begins as in the transition to the coda.  It will remain in force to the end.  In the second measure, the bassoons play a fortissimo scale in triplet rhythm suggesting the F major of the Trio.  They hold the note B-flat, doubled by the entering horns.  The flutes and oboes, harmonized in thirds, play the turning figures from the scherzo before turning up in a staccato scale and quickly rejecting the suggested F major to arrive on C, the bassoons and horns moving to B-natural and C.  This entire sequence is repeated, but now the bassoons are doubled by the clarinets on the rising triplet scale.  The horns join the flutes and oboes on the turning figures and staccato scale, where they turn down.
2:51 [m. 90]--The clarinets and bassoons have a downward scale in thirds, followed by the flutes, oboes, and horns in an upward scale (the horns turning down).  The clarinets and bassoons repeat their downward scale, and then the clarinets join the flutes and oboes on rapidly turning scale patterns that include yet another chromatic B-flat.  The bassoons and horns play long chords.  Finally, the flutes, oboes, and clarinets shoot up in one last scale, reaching a top G, which has more internal motion under its powerful reiterations.  The basses now strongly punctuate the “pedal point” on each beat, having moved to upbeats and downbeats as they did in the Trio.  All instruments, including strings, punctuate the powerful final C-major chord.
3:06--END OF MOVEMENT [97 (+42) mm.]

3rd Movement: Adagio non troppo (Ternary form or ABA’ with large transitions).  A MINOR, 12/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--The strings, in unison, set up what will be a persistent pattern in the A section, a sort of movable ground bass.  It ominously sways in a long-short rhythm, reaching up and snaking back down over two measures.  At the end of the first measure, the first flute and first clarinet enter on the upbeat, holding it over the bar line.  They play the main theme, a tragic, expressive melody with a distinctive ornament, also using the swaying long-short rhythm.  At the end of the measure, the strings begin their pattern again, and the second clarinet enters to imitate the melody.  Meanwhile, the flute and first clarinet reach high, then wind back down.  The second clarinet plunges, and all approach an A-minor cadence that is cut off.
0:26 [m. 5]--The string pattern moves up a fourth, and the previous wind instruments are joined by the first oboe, who plays with the first flute.  The clarinets are now in unison, playing a counterpoint to the main melody that moves contrary to it.  The flute and oboe reach to a high A, and they shift the key toward the minor key on the “dominant” note, E minor.  A cadence there is also aborted.  The string pattern moves up another step.  The bassoons join the second clarinet on the opening of the main melody in E minor.  They reach an arrival there as the string pattern moves back to its original level.  Rising in harmonized thirds, the bassoons lead back to A minor.
0:57 [m. 10]--The flutes, with clarinet, lead on the melody, the bassoons playing harmonies underneath.  At another upward reach, as the string pattern now moves up a third above the original level, the flute is joined by oboe, and the clarinets join the bassoon harmonies.  Building in intensity, the flute and oboe emerge brightly into the “relative” major key, C major.  After reaching a cadence there, the melody is extended with mild syncopation as the string pattern is moved up another fourth.  There is a second cadence in C major and yet another extension, this time dropping to a lower level in pitch and volume as the string pattern is played again at this level.  The pattern finally breaks as the flute leads to a third quiet, pulsing cadence.
1:44 [m. 18]--Halfway through the cadence measure, the cellos pulsate on C and build rapidly.  In a wailing outburst, the flute and oboe shift to minor over a colorful “diminished seventh” harmony.  The first horn has now entered, and it imitates the wailing descent.  The other strings join the pulsations and move as needed.  The bassoons and clarinets then suddenly quiet down and shift to E minor with a desolate response.  The two wailing outbursts from flute/oboe and horn are heard again on E minor (again over a “diminished seventh”).  This time, the clarinets and bassoons make a different harmonic shift, sliding down to E-flat, which will prepare the way for the A-flat of the B section.
2:08 [m. 22]--At the end of the preceding measure, the clarinet and bassoon have a sequence of rising thirds.  In the next measure, the oboes reverse this sequence.  Meanwhile the strings have thinned back to the cello pulsations, but the violas now enter with an oscillating trill-like pattern.  The flutes begin the sequence of rising thirds, now harmonized, but do not complete it.  Instead, the two horns play loud calls in descending fifths as the key signature changes to four flats.  After two calls, the horns rise, partly using the thirds, then play two more calls an octave higher than before.  Accompanied by woodwind harmonies, the horn plays an arching line that touches the minor before a stretched-out call landing on E-flat.
2:29 [m. 26]--At the horn’s powerful plunge to E-flat, the bassoon and clarinet play the rising third sequence again.  The flutes and oboes join in counterpoint on the rising thirds.  The volume has settled down, and the oscillation in the violas briefly expands to a sixth before returning to thirds and seconds.  Building again, the flute and oboe emerge on the descending “call” figures that had been played by the horns, harmonized by clarinets and bassoons.  They move to the arching line, which is altered, leading to two straight octave leaps on F.  The viola oscillation expands again to sixths and fifths.  The flutes and oboes, with clarinets and bassoons in contrary motion, settle to an extended arrival on A-flat.
2:57 [m. 30]--At the cadence on the second beat of the bar, the strings completely drop out.  The oboe leads a yearning melody, molto espressivo, accompanied by clarinets and horn.  It works up, then after an upward octave leap, descends to A-flat with a tender turning ornament.  The melody then continues with leaps and sighs, mostly in long-short rhythm.  The bassoons join the accompaniment.  The oboe phrase ends with a brief inflection to minor and a questioning gesture.
3:20 [m. 34]--The clarinet takes over the melody, the oboe and horn dropping out.  Beginning lower and with immediate chromatic alterations, the clarinet turns the melody toward E-flat minor and B-flat minor.  After the turning ornament, the oboe takes over again, playing the opening phrase and reiterating the turning ornament, changing the notes such that the descent is a third lower than it played before.  The oboe line turns first to B-flat major, then back to A-flat major, the melody landing on the “dominant” note E-flat.
3:43 [m. 38]--The oboe now emerges into a series of descending fourths in “duplet” rhythm.  These work their way down, then leap back up to begin another sequence a step lower.  The descending fourths are highly chromatic.  Against them, the first clarinet plays winding figures in the prevailing 12/8 with three notes to a beat.  The horns play downward leaping octaves on the “dominant” E-flat.  These horn leaps are followed by the second clarinet and first bassoon leaping down an octave, with harmony of a third between them.  The bassoon slides up at the end of the first sequence, and the clarinet slides at the end of the second.
3:53 [m. 40]--A third sequence of the descending fourths from the oboe is again a step lower.  This time, the horn leap is followed by a harmonized octave descent from both bassoons rather than bassoon and clarinet.  They both slide up (as does the oboe, now joined by its partner), and all the winds now play in “duplet” rhythm to close off the phrase over one last descending octave horn leap.  The cellos and basses sneak in with plucked notes at the end.
4:04 [m. 42]--The violas enter with distinctive syncopated figures that leap up a fifth to repeated notes.  The second clarinet plays rising three-note figures, beginning on A-flat with a chromatic inflection on the second note to B-natural.  The first clarinet then enters, molto espressivo, with a passionate new phrase that begins with a long note, then descends, ending with a turning ornament.  The key shifts to the “relative” F minor.  The melody leaps widely for the continuation, building strongly.  The rising second clarinet lines and the syncopated viola figures move from their positions, the latter expanding to octaves and sixths.  Bassoons and cellos enter in support, slowly descending in half-steps.
4:21 [m. 45]--With the arrival of the forte level, the first clarinet melody soars and sways.  The slowly descending cello line, with basses taking over for bassoons, shifts the harmony toward C major, then D-flat major.  The horns and flutes enter to support the harmony with the bassoons, who have left the chromatic descent to cellos and basses.  The rising second clarinet figures and the syncopated viola patterns continue.  Finally, the first clarinet melody becomes syncopated and works its way to an arrival at home on A-flat, the final descent in two-note “duplet” rhythm groups.
4:41 [m. 49]--After the cadence, halfway through m. 48, the viola line changes from syncopation to straight oscillation, and the rising figures from the second clarinet come to an end.  The low instruments, cellos, basses, and bassoons, play the passionate phrase in F minor.  The first clarinet joins for the continuation, which proceeds as expected before a new upward shift.  The second bassoon and basses move to the descending chromatic line.  That bass line now moves faster as the oboes enter to take over the melody, which deviates from the previous pattern and continues to build strongly, touching C major.
5:01 [m. 52]--At the climax on the “dominant” in A-flat, the horns enter with powerful repeated octaves, doubling the viola oscillation.  The oboes, clarinets, and bassoons, all harmonized almost entirely in thirds, rapidly diminish in strength.  Led by the oboes, these woodwind pairs continue with sighing long-short motion, gently rise, then descend, adding some syncopation in the harmony.  The phrase settles to its conclusion.  Approaching the cadence, the oboes and clarinets on weak beats follow the bassoons and horns on strong beats.  The viola oscillation contracts to a half-step before the subdued and satisfying cadence.  The final A-flat is reiterated softly by the strings to lead into the re-transition.
5:31 [m. 57]--The re-transition is largely in C minor, with the key signature of three flats.  The last low string A-flat slides down to G, and then the violas begin the bass pattern from A.  It will not support the theme but will instead serve as the subject for a passage of counterpoint.  The violas make an unexpected upward turn in the second measure, and then the oboe enters with a new element, a series of detached two-note figures that begin off the beat and fall before turning up at the end of the measure.  The bassoons enter in the next bar with the bass pattern, imitating the violas a fourth higher.  The violas continue in harmonic counterpoint with the bassoons.  The oboe interjections continue, with alternating down and up motion.
5:48 [m. 60]--The patterns continue in bassoons, violas, and oboe, and halfway through the bar, the cellos and basses enter with the bass pattern, an octave lower than the violas had begun.  The oboe interjections continue.  On the next downbeat, the flute enters to double the oboe an octave above.  The bassoons and violas cut off here as the lower strings continue the bass line.  The bassoons quickly enter again halfway through the bar, now doubled by clarinet.  In the next measure, the detached two-note figures are passed from flute and oboe to violas and cellos, with the basses on long notes.  They are quickly passed back to the flute and oboe halfway through the bar as violas and cellos take the bass pattern.
6:03 [m. 63]--They key has shifted to G minor.  The two-note interjections are passed briefly to clarinet and bassoon, who have not played them before.  Those instruments quickly move to the bass pattern, passing the interjections back to the flute and oboe.  The string basses slide down by half-step, shifting toward F minor.  Violas and cellos again take the two-note interjections, then move to the bass pattern, which now starts in E-flat minor.  The flute and oboes now have a new element, a smooth winding figure that begins high and reaches down.  This continues as the clarinet and bassoon enter in counterpoint to the violas and cellos.  The horns make an entry here, playing long supporting notes with the second bassoon and basses.
6:20 [m. 66]--A buildup has started, and the previous patterns continue.  The descending bass line initially supports the continuation of E-flat minor, but this quickly shifts to the suggestion of C-flat major, the first suggestion of the major mode in this spectral re-transition.  All four woodwind pairs (flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons) now emerge into a smooth and highly chromatic undulation while the violas and cellos have upward octave leaps, which themselves gradually slide upward.  All of this culminates in a forte arrival point and a strong motion back to C minor, the main key of the re-transition.
6:31 [m. 68]--The violas emerge alone from the powerful C-minor arrival.  They again begin the familiar bass pattern, but now in its original form.  A solo horn mournfully intones the expressive main melody of the A section in C minor.  It is cut off after one measure as the cellos and basses take over from the violas and slide down.  The entire woodwind section then interjects forcefully with a turning figure from the theme, abruptly shifting the key to D minor.  A descent in that key is passed from oboe and clarinet to bassoon and violas to cellos and basses, gradually receding.  There is then another loud woodwind interjection that shifts the key up another level to E minor.
6:54 [m. 72]--The descent, now in E minor, is again passed from oboe and clarinet to bassoon and violas to cellos and basses, now remaining forte.  In a new extension, the woodwinds (led by oboe, without flutes), continue the pervasive long-short rhythm, changing the key from E minor to its “relative” G major, remaining forte as the low strings descend.  Further chromatic motion in the woodwinds and low strings slides the key back home to A minor, the arrival point marking the full return of the A section material.
7:09 [m. 75]--The first four measures are analogous to the opening of the movement, but the bass pattern is now transformed into a continuous upward-winding motion and assigned to the violas alone, supported by the lower strings and bassoon interjections.  The first flute and first clarinet present the main melody, as they did at the beginning, but now they are imitated by the cellos and basses instead of the second clarinet.  These low strings closely follow the former second clarinet line, with some alterations at the end.  The second clarinet itself, notably, joins the bassoon interjections.  The cadence is cut off as before.
7:31 [m. 79]--Analogous to 0:26 [m. 5].  The melody in the flute and oboe in the first two measures is as it was in the initial presentation.  The violas continue their winding patterns, and the lower strings have the contrary-motion counterpoint, which does not exactly match the previous clarinet line.  The second clarinet and bassoons continue with their interjections.  After the aborted cadence in E minor, the strings transition to the original ground bass pattern, including the violas.  The next three measures are as they were in the first A section, except that the second bassoon does not join until the rising thirds leading back to A minor and strikingly, the violas and cellos change to pizzicato in the last measure (the basses are still bowed).
7:58 [m. 84]--Analogous to 0:57 [m. 10].  The flute and clarinet take the lead, accompanied by bassoons as before, but the violas and cellos continue to pluck the ground bass.  Halfway through the first measure, there is an adjustment to the melody and the ground bass, which continues in the two following measures as the oboe joins the melody and the clarinets join the accompaniment.  These adjustments are made to ensure that the melody remains in A minor (passing through D minor) rather than making the bright turn to C major.  The syncopated extension and cadence follow, again coloring A minor with touches of D minor.  In the second extension, the winds are thinned to clarinets and bassoons, and the basses join the pizzicato.
8:31 [m. 90]--The winds in the second extension are reduced to bassoons alone, and they make a new turn at the end, accompanied by the strings, who take their bows and play a syncopated figure.  The sound is hushed and haunting.  The harmony turns again to D minor, more emphatically, but not quite completely, as the note A remains in the bass and there is no “leading tone.”  The other woodwinds join the bassoons with descending pianissimo harmonies in an unusual “plagal” cadence as the D-minor harmony is wrenched back to A.  The last chord is A major, not minor, using the C-sharp that had helped suggest D minor to give the ending an unexpectedly warm turn.  The chord is reiterated twice by bassoons and strings, then held.
9:10--END OF MOVEMENT [93 mm.]

4th Movement: Quasi Menuetto; Trio (Minuet and Trio).  D MAJOR, 6/4 time.

0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  After a downbeat D from the plucked strings, a lilting, halting melody is presented by clarinets and bassoons, harmonized in thirds.  The strings, still plucked and in unison, punctuate it on the downbeats and weak beats.  After two sequential gestures, the clarinets and bassoons expand the harmonies to sixths and reach higher, then descend while the strings take their bows and play a rising line.  Closing off the section, the clarinets and bassoons play two gentle upbeat-downbeat figures.  The bassoons play two more with the violas and cellos, and then a last one with the clarinets.  These last three extend the phrase to nine bars, creating a sense of imbalance, and emphasize the “dominant” note A.
0:16 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The first ending includes a plucked string upbeat A leading into the first downbeat D, and the second ending has a bowed G-natural on the upbeat, leading into the key change that begins Part 2.
0:32 [m. 10]--Part 2.  The bowed strings slide down to F-sharp.  The remaining pairs of winds (flutes and oboes), join the others.  The key has abruptly and strikingly shifted up a third to F-sharp major.  There, the winds play more lilting gestures, dolce.  The cellos and basses hold a low F-sharp, but the violas have rising interjections that support the wind lines.  After two gestures, a new wind figure with an upward leap followed by a descent is led by oboe and clarinet, with a flowing viola line and some motion in the lower strings.  This is stated twice over three bars.  Finally, a gently arching line in thirds from all woodwinds except the clarinets, supported by the violas, reaches a cadence in F-sharp, the melody landing on A-sharp.
0:51 [m. 20]--After the cadence, the clarinets and bassoons in unison have two gentle echoes of the main lilting figure.  The harmony shifts to F-sharp minor under the second of these, and the echo itself, on the notes A-natural and F-sharp, leads naturally back to D major.
0:55 [m. 22]--The strings play a held D.  The oboes and bassoons (beginning briefly with clarinets), then play a new phrase derived from the previous ones, accompanied by all the strings in unison lines.  It gradually builds, leading to a syncopation on the dissonant note C-natural.  Two accented descents lead to the re-entry of the flutes and clarinets.  Another accent on a held harmony precedes a descent and full cadence in D.  Two upbeat-downbeat figures from the winds (without bassoons) are followed by two from clarinets and strings, then a final one from winds without bassoons.  The last gestures create an imbalanced eleven-bar phrase.  The first ending has an upbeat D-E from strings leading to F-sharp for the repeat.
1:15 [m. 10]--Part 2 repeated.  Passage in F-sharp major, as at 0:32.
1:34 [m. 20]--Echoes leading to F-sharp minor and back to D major, as at 0:51.
1:37 [m. 22]--Closing phrases and upbeat-downbeat figures, as at 0:55.  The second ending has an upbeat C-sharp that will lead to the downbeat F-sharp that begins the Trio section.
TRIO (F-sharp minor)
1:57 [m. 33]--Part 1.  The violas establish a persistent tremolo in fast triplet rhythm, beginning on a third, creating a rustling effect.  The bassoons sustain the harmony implied by the viola tremolo.  The main melody, espressivo dolce, is almost hidden in the oboe.  Two detached notes are followed by a swaying gesture reminiscent of the Minuet theme.  That gesture decorates the melody in detached notes alternating between the flutes and plucked cellos.  The oboe melody is played in a lower sequence, briefly suggesting G major, and the viola tremolo widens before contracting again. 
2:11 [m. 41]--The oboe flourishes upward in two reaching gestures.  The flute decorations obtain harmony in thirds and are supported by the plucked cellos, who continue after their “alternations.”  The clarinet enters to play rising octaves in a quasi-imitation of the oboe.  The viola tremolo ranges wider.  A third, higher upward reach from the oboe builds before it descends, and the basses join the plucked cellos.  The flutes, bassoons, and plucked low strings now support the oboe melody, which is harmonized by a clarinet.  At the end, the melody turns from F-sharp minor to the “dominant” C-sharp major in a decorated turn.
2:25 [m. 49]--The oboe drops out, and the clarinet has dolce C-sharp-major “echoes” in the figures derived from the Minuet theme.  These are separated by flute harmonies and syncopated bowed cellos.  The viola tremolo continues, moving and expanding as needed.  After the third “echo,” which is altered to omit the “leading tone,” the clarinet steadily descends with two more figures, remaining in C-sharp major.  The volume settles back down.  The bowed cellos and basses, with syncopated C-sharps, lead into the repeat, with C-sharp now functioning as a “dominant” lead-in to the main F-sharp-minor key.
2:38 [m. 33]--Part 1 repeated.  Initial oboe gestures with descending sequence, as at 1:57.
2:51 [m. 41]--Upward reaching gestures, buildup, and turn to C-sharp major, as at 2:11.
3:04 [m. 49]--Clarinet echoes with syncopated C-sharps in bowed low strings, as at 2:25.
3:17 [m. 57]--Part 2.  The strings slide up to D.  The key turns back to F-sharp minor, but the harmony is a “diminished seventh.”  The viola tremolo continues.  The oboe again has two gestures in sequence, rising this time, and the flute punctuations on the “Minuet” gesture are balanced by plucked D-sharps from the cellos.  They take their bow to play a “Minuet” gesture between the two oboe statements.  The first gesture suggests G major, which had been touched on before.  The second gesture moves more quickly to the “Minuet” gesture, which it repeats with a bowed cello/bass gesture.  It suggests the remote C major, with C-sharp functioning as a chromatic upper neighbor as well as a “dominant” to pull the music back to F-sharp.
3:30 [m. 65]--The flutes and oboes have a strong descent harmonized in thirds.  The clarinets and bassoons, who entered to support the last oboe gesture, rise against them.  The cellos move to fast triplets matching the viola tremolo on a “pedal point” C-sharp, which the basses also play without the triplet rhythm.  The flutes and basses, then the oboes, drop out, leaving the clarinets to continue the descent and the bassoons the countering ascent.  The cellos slow to “straight” rhythm.  One clarinet and one bassoon then descend chromatically in sixths, the clarinet doubled with repeated notes from the violas (still in fast pulsing triplets) and the bassoon by cellos (in “straight” notes), diminishing rapidly.
3:37 [m. 69]--The descent arrives on F-sharp, the clarinet and violas having added a mild syncopation and leading tone.  After this arrival, the first eight measures of Part 1 are given with a mild variation involving added chromatic motion in the bassoons, viola tremolo, and plucked cello interjections.
3:50 [m. 77]--The upward oboe reaches from 2:11 and 2:51 [m. 41] are heard largely as before, but the third upward reach is doubled by flute and harmonized by clarinets and bassoons.  Plucked cellos and basses also support the following descent.  That descent continues where it had slowed down, and its harmony, including the supporting instruments and the viola tremolo, remains in F-sharp instead of moving to C-sharp.  A strong cadence in F-sharp minor is changed to major at the arrival point.
4:03 [m. 85]--The clarinet and flute are now doubled on the “Minuet” echoes.  They are in F-sharp major and punctuated by bowed syncopations on F-sharp in cellos and basses, supported by bassoon harmonies.  After the second exchange, the third echo is altered to avoid the “leading tone.”  After a quick repetition up a third, it ends with two upward reaches of C-sharp and F-sharp, which punctuate a full arrival on F-sharp major.  The viola tremolo finally ends, and the bowed cellos and basses echo the “Minuet” figure twice, the second time turning it back to minor and extending the phrase by a measure [m. 93].  These notes, F-sharp and A, are converted to the upper two notes of the D-major chord, leading seamlessly to the Minuet reprise.
4:19 [m. 1]--Part 1, as at the beginning and 0:16.  The repeat is omitted, and the second ending is played.
4:36 [m. 10]--Part 2.  Passage in F-sharp major, as at 0:32 and 1:15.
4:54 [m. 20]--Echoes leading to F-sharp minor and back to D major, as at 0:51 and 1:34.
4:58 [m. 22]--Closing phrases and upbeat-downbeat figures, as at 0:55 and 1:37.  The measure used for both the first and second endings (m. 32) is replaced by the first measure of the coda.
5:16 [m. 94]--Coda.  It is placed after the Trio in the notation with an indication to skip there.  The first measure is the same as the second ending of Part 2 except for the last beat, on which the “dominant” chord is reiterated and then held over the bar line, punctuated by strong motion from the “dominant” A to D in plucked strings.  At that point, the woodwinds strongly emphasize the “subdominant” G major, as do the plucked strings.  A full “dominant” motion toward G is played in both, the flutes and oboes dipping down and back up.  Finally, the G-major chord leads to a serenely held D-major chord, punctuated by plucked strings, creating a “plagal” cadence.  The first and third movements also ended with such a cadence.
5:31--END OF MOVEMENT [98 (+31) mm.]

5th Movement: Rondo - Allegro (Sonata-Rondo form).  A MAJOR, 2/4 time.

0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1 (Rondo Theme).  Like a signal, a short upbeat E rising to a held A is sounded forcefully in all instruments except horns.  The new addition of the piccolo already makes its presence felt.  From there, the clarinets quietly begin the jaunty theme in “horn fifth” harmonies, with two-note upbeats and solid downbeats.  They are accompanied by violas and cellos, who play two notes on downbeats and then short upbeats.  After the first four bars, the clarinets pass to the oboes for the continuation, which uses distinctive downward-arching triplet figures and comes to a full cadence, still with the viola/cello patterns.
0:10 [m. 11]--Overlapping the cadence, the theme is now restated by flutes, clarinets, and bassoons.  The violas and cellos now play repeated-note triplets on the downbeats, and the basses support them with plucked notes in “straight” rhythm.  For the continuation with downward-arching triplets, the piccolo and oboes brightly join, and the clarinets drop out.  This time the cadence leads to a very brief pause.
0:18 [m. 19]--A new pattern is begun by violas and cellos, with stamping triplet figures on downbeats.  These leap down, then march back up in straight rhythm.  After a half-step motion on the second pattern, the clarinets take over the figure starting a sixth higher as the violas and cellos continue to march up in straight rhythm, shifting briefly to the “relative” F-sharp minor.  It is then passed to flutes and oboe, again a sixth higher, moving back to A major, as clarinets and bassoons, harmonized in thirds, join the upward-marching violas and cellos.  A steady, strong buildup begins.
0:23 [m. 25]--The piccolo enters, the oboe briefly drops out, and all remaining instruments stall and oscillate on the stamping triplets except bassoons, who play in straight rhythm.  After two measures, the pattern leaps up a fourth (touching on D major) and the basses join in straight rhythm.  The buildup becomes even stronger, and suddenly the instruments all emerge into a powerful downward-plunging scale in the triplet rhythm, the piccolo soaring brightly.  The oboes join here, and the clarinets drop out in preparation for their next thematic statement.  The plunging scale again brings the harmony back to A.
0:28 [m. 31]--The clarinets have another presentation of the main theme, now joined by the oboe with a repeated E decorated by an upper grace note.  The violas and cellos again have the repeated-note triplets, with the plucked basses in straight rhythm.  The oboes take the continuation with downward-arching triplets as expected, moving from their grace note-decorated E’s.  After the oboes finish their statement, the other woodwinds all take over and repeat the continuation passage, replacing its straight upbeat with a rising triplet.
0:39 [m. 43]--Transition.  Overlapping with the cadence, and forte, the oboes, clarinets, and strings play a variant of the stamping triplets, continuing with an upward arch.  They shift the key toward the “dominant” E.  After this first statement, the horns, powerfully making their first entrance, take over for a second statement as the oboes and clarinets move to repeated B’s with the strings.  The upward arch is now passed between two groups: clarinets and bassoons with violas and cellos, and oboes with horns.  While one group takes the arching figure, the other moves to repeated B’s.  After the first exchange, the piccolo and flutes join the oboes and horns.
0:46 [m. 51]--The whole instrumental group now stalls for two bars, flutes with piccolo and horns reaching up in triplets while oboes, clarinets, and bassoons stamp in straight rhythm.  Violas and cellos reach down in triplets while the basses, who have thus far not deviated from the triplet and held B’s, now join the instruments in straight rhythm.  There is a punctuated, forceful arrival on E from the whole group, followed by a brief pause.
0:50 [m. 55]--The clarinets and bassoons now have what could be called a mysterious “transition theme” in E minor.  The clarinets begin on the previous upbeat, then wind down and back up, harmonized in thirds, with faster notes on upbeats and longer notes on downbeats.  The bassoons imitate the clarinets a measure behind them.  After two winding gestures, the clarinets repeat a descent, then reach up and move down in straight quarter notes.  The bassoons break their imitation and rise in straight quarter notes against this.  Both pairs arrive on D-major harmony.  At that point, the strings in unison forcefully enter with repeated-note triplets on upbeats, steadily moving down and settling back to E minor for a second statement.
1:01 [m. 67]--The cellos and basses thump out one more repeated-note triplet on B as a restatement of the “transition theme” begins.  This time the instruments are reversed, with the bassoons leading the clarinets.  The patterns of the previous statement are followed until the sixth measure, where the bassoons reach up for a descent instead of repeating one.  The rising oboes are also adjusted at the end.  These changes direct the harmony so that it leads to B, functioning as a preparatory “dominant” in E.
1:09 [m. 75]--All winds (except oboes) and horns play a held chord based on B.  The strings enter with a highly agitated oscillation, with repeated notes in the violas and cellos.  The oscillation alternates between A-G-sharp half-steps and ever widening leaps down from A.  The winds play accented short chords (E minor, then E major, then a “diminished seventh”) on upbeats leading back to the B “dominant” chord.  On the last of the three, the buildup becomes stronger, and the churning string oscillation has widened to an octave.  After this climax, flutes and clarinets descend to mark a delayed E-major cadence before Theme 2.
1:16 [m. 83]--Theme 2 (Episodic Theme in E major).  At the cadence, the strings begin a quiet, but churning accompaniment, with two-note viola figures in double-stops following downbeat notes from cellos and basses.  The horns briefly support this.  On the following upbeat, a solo oboe (omitted from the previous buildup) is given the initial presentation of the new theme.  It is joyous and full-hearted, with upbeats leading into downbeats, then winding and descending figures, all separated by pauses.  The bassoons enter in support.  In a descent, the cellos briefly but beautifully harmonize the oboe melody.  The first phrase ends with a turn figure notated as a five-note group, then a half-close.
1:24 [m. 91]--While the churning accompaniment continues in basses and violas, the horn and cellos in unison start the next phrase of the theme, breaking off after two bars.  Dolce upbeat figures then alternate between bassoons and clarinets over a held horn note.  The strings change their pattern, with violas and cellos playing plucked upward arpeggios after the downbeats.  After two bassoon/clarinet exchanges hinting back at A major, they move strongly to the expected descent with the horns.  The first clarinet and first bassoon play the five-note turn figure.  Instead of pausing, the theme builds, with piccolo, flutes, and oboes joining for a higher statement of the descent and turn figure, leading to a powerful E-major cadence.
1:36 [m. 104]--The strings once again move to the oscillating patterns that preceded Theme 2, still using half-steps and leaps, but without a static top note.  The winds have strong and exuberant upbeat-downbeat figures before a reiteration of the E-major cadence decorated by a trill.  The piccolo again pierces through the texture.  At this cadence, the winds, mostly in unison with some harmony and a few chromatic notes, move to a steady marching pattern while the strings play upbeat-downbeat figures.  This culminates in four rising figures in the winds against descents and trills in the strings.  The volume rapidly diminishes.
1:46 [m. 115]--The winds pause after the last rising figure, then reiterate and harmonize a rising third (G-sharp-B), at first holding the B out twice over bar lines, then quickly leaping down and back up, then holding it again twice (now within the measure) before more quick leaps.  The strings accompany this, punctuating the longer-held B’s with trills.  The volume continues to diminish, arriving at pianissimo.  After one last held B, the cellos and basses quietly descend from E to B.
1:52 [m. 122]--Closing material based on rondo theme.  The horns, who have paused through the previous cadential material, now enter with a variant of the main rondo theme that is distinguished by a short turning figure in the third full measure.  They are accompanied by half-steps on B and A-sharp in the cellos and basses, the B’s being held out.  The theme then continues with piccolo and oboe, who also add a new element in the third full measure, a turning figure decorated by grace notes.  Against the piccolo and oboe, the violas and cellos move to downward-arching triplets closely resembling those associated with the oboes from the theme.  The basses pluck B’s on downbeats and upbeats.
2:00 [m. 130]--The horns again begin the rondo theme variant, but at the new turning figure, they are now joined by oboes.  The piccolo and oboe then restate their continuation with the decorated turn figure, played against downward-arching triplets from violas and cellos.  The piccolo and oboe now reiterate the last gesture, an upbeat B rising to an E, three times, holding the last one out.  The plucked basses shift from B to G-sharp and E.  This marks the end of the exposition.  The viola triplets change from arches to repeated descents, leading into the “signal” that starts the development section.
2:11 [m. 142]--Rondo Theme.  The hybridization of rondo and sonata form is in evidence here, with the first and second themes deployed in rondo-like fashion superimposed on a development.  At first, the loud opening “signal” is heard as at the beginning, and then the theme is presented by clarinets in the home key.  The only major difference is that the accompanying figures now alternate between the viola/cello group, now plucked, and a flute/bassoon pair.  This alternation persists through the oboe continuation.
2:20 [m. 152]--The theme is interrupted by what appears to be the loud “signal” again, but instead of leaping from E to A, it slides up a half-step to E-sharp.  At the same time, the strings, now all bowed, play a triplet group on the note C-sharp.  At that point, the opening of the rondo theme is presented by piccolo, flutes, and bassoons in the key of C-sharp major.  The accompanying figures are now triplets and alternate between the viola/cello group and an oboe/clarinet pair. 
2:26 [m. 158]--Instead of the triplet continuation, one instrument of each wind pair, including piccolo (except oboes, who drop out) begins to slide down by half-step with syncopated notes, alternating with the partner instruments, which play upward-sliding figures.  The strings now continuously alternate the triplet rhythm, which also slides down by half-step.  Violas and cellos alternate with cellos (dipping an octave) and basses.  The slide continues for five levels, until the strings reach a bass C-sharp and the wind group a C-sharp harmony.  Pairs of flutes, clarinets, and bassoons then play four continuously descending upbeat-downbeat figures in thirds, the flutes dropping out after the first two, over the triplet C-sharp in low strings.
2:35 [m. 168]--Episodic Theme (Theme 2 in F-sharp minor).  Its arrival coincides with the fourth upbeat-downbeat figure from clarinets and bassoons.  It is again played by oboe, but transformed to minor (F-sharp minor, “relative” to the home key of A major).  The oboe is accompanied by the familiar churning patterns from the strings.  The cellos harmonize with the oboe at the same point where they did before, and the oboe reaches its five-note turn figure leading to a half-close.
2:41 [m. 175]--The cellos and violas now begin a statement of the theme, with accompanying figures and later full harmonization from clarinets and bassoons.  They also reach the same five-note turn figure and half-close in F-sharp minor.
2:48 [m. 182]--The first oboe now begins a development of the theme, at first hinting at the major key.  Its figuration is accompanied by the second oboe and the bassoon pair, along with the low strings, who at first rise by half-step, then descend in larger intervals.  The oboe figuration makes two theme-like gestures, then moves to continuous upward-arching groups before finally landing again on F-sharp minor.
2:56 [m. 190]--Another sequence of development begins, with the oboes and bassoons in harmony and joined by the flutes, now building in volume.  The accompanying figures are now played by violas and cellos as the basses march up.  This time, an arching gesture leads to a forceful cadence in F-sharp with long-short rhythm.  The arching gesture and the forceful cadence are immediately repeated.
3:07 [m. 202]--At the point of the second cadence in F-sharp, the volume suddenly becomes quiet and the clarinets, dolce, merge into a statement of the main rondo theme in D major, F-sharp minor leading seamlessly to that key.  This statement, however, is “augmented,” or stretched out with doubled note values.  It is accompanied by arpeggios from bassoon and violas, alternating with the other bassoon and flutes, and played over a repeated “drone fifth” on D in the cellos.  The result is a “bagpipe” effect.  After the expected opening pattern, it is spun out and extended where the triplet continuation would be expected.
3:22 [m. 217]--The last clarinet gesture is repeated twice with new syncopation.  At the same time, the bass drone ends and the bass line itself begins to move, as do the accompanying arpeggios from flutes, bassoons, and violas, which now come together.  The syncopated clarinets are joined by oboe on two successively higher reaching gestures.  Finally, the accompanying arpeggios take over and speed up.  The key makes a highly chromatic motion from D major to E major, with descending half-steps in the cellos and basses.  Through all of this, there is a very strong buildup from the gentle clarinet statement to a forte arrival.
3:29 [m. 226]--Re-transition.  The cellos and basses now establish a pulsing drone on E.  The horns enter quietly in that key, playing the first part of the main rondo theme.  The oboes then enter with a new continuation, with harmonized thirds moving in a stepwise manner up and down, beginning to build.  The horns move to leaping octaves and fifths.  Flutes, clarinets, and bassoons then take over from the oboes and continue to build with the stepwise motion harmonized in thirds.  The low strings move from their drone to a repeated E, then to leaping octaves on A.  The melodic motion introduces the chromatic note E-sharp, briefly suggesting the key of F-sharp minor as the music builds again to fortissimo.
3:43 [m. 242]--All strings (the violas having joined at the end of the buildup) plus flutes and bassoons stretch out the climax with an angular passage in steady unison motion.  In addition to E-sharp, the note B-sharp is introduced.  The preceding E-major passage has been a “dominant” preparation.  As the unison instruments continue to wind upward, they again arrive at the note E-sharp, but this time it is diverted to a very grand arrival on A major, heralding the recapitulation.
3:53 [m. 253]--Theme 1 (Rondo Theme).  The first part of the theme having been presented at the outset of the development section, what arrives here, most satisfyingly, is the triplet continuation originally played by oboes.  It is given by flutes, clarinets, and bassoons with drone-like accompaniment from the strings.  Now the piccolo truly makes its presence felt, decorating the theme with high trills connected by a rushing scale figure.  The triplets are presented as they were in the passage at 0:28 [m. 31], with a repetition that is joined by oboes, along with violas and cellos moving to triplets.  The piccolo also moves to the triplets, piercing through, and passing its trills and scale figure to the regular flutes.
4:01 [m. 261]--The passage from 0:18 [m. 19] is now heard in almost the same presentation with the notable exception that it starts out forte rather than building from piano.  The oboes and piccolo also make an earlier entrance.
4:06 [m. 267]--As at 0:23 [m. 25], the instruments stall and oscillate on the stamping triplets, then move to a powerful unison descending scale.
4:12 [m. 273]--This passage begins analogously to 0:28 [m. 31], but diverges from it, becoming a new transition.  The theme is played by flutes, clarinets, and bassoons, with the stamping triplets from violas and cellos in alternation against plucked basses, the horns also adding punctuation.  Above it all, the piccolo plays another piercing trill.  At the motion to the triplet continuation, the figures are passed from flutes and bassoons to oboes and clarinets twice, with two more shorter trills from the piccolo.  The whole triplet pattern seems to begin a repetition, but halfway through, it moves up where a downward motion would be expected, and the bass also becomes active, emphasizing the “dominant” on E.
4:23 [m. 285]--The triplet figures now steadily and breathlessly work up, beginning in piccolo, flutes, oboes, and bassoons.  The clarinets start with quarter-note pulsations.  The horns and basses provide eighth-note punctuation in clashing straight rhythm while the violas and cellos play downward-arching leaps (broken octaves in cellos) in triplet rhythm.  After two bars, a clarinet joins the triplets, and the pulsations are in the first oboe, second clarinet, and bassoons.  At this same point, with the piccolo soaring very high, the triplets reach the “dominant” E.  The instruments stall there for two more measures of repeated triplets, then cut off, and the strings punctuate the note E (also in triplets) in preparation for the “transition theme.”
4:28 [m. 291]--“Transition theme,” analogous to 0:50 [m. 55], now in A minor, but still with clarinets leading bassoons as before.  They end on a G-major harmony, and then the strings in unison settle back to A minor with repeated-note triplets on upbeats, matching the earlier passage.
4:39 [m. 303]--Restatement of “transition theme,” analogous to 1:01 [m. 67].  The patterns are the same, but the instrumentation is new and surprising.  Instead of simply reversing the bassoons and clarinets, this restatement leaves out both pairs.  The violas and cellos (in the same harmonies) lead the oboes, creating an entirely new sound for the mysterious theme.  It leads toward E, the “dominant” in A major.
4:46 [m. 311]--Buildup passage, analogous to 1:09 [m. 75].  The string oscillation begins on D and C-sharp, widening down from D.  The wind patterns are mostly the same, but the first short chord replaces the expected A minor with a more dissonant “diminished seventh.”  The oboes enter at the end, doubling the flutes where the clarinets had done so before.  Flutes and oboes descend into the statement of Theme 2 in the home key.
4:54 [m. 319]--Theme 2 (Episodic Theme in A major), analogous to 1:16 [m. 83].  The oboe presents the theme, as before.  The main difference here, other than the key, is that the double-stop viola figures are replaced by ascending triplet arpeggios dovetailed between the two clarinets.  Also, with the higher key, the brief harmonization comes from the violas instead of the cellos.
5:01 [m. 327]--Second phrase of theme, analogous to 1:24 [m. 91].  The clarinets continue their triplet arpeggios.  The violas alone start the phrase, then break off.  The dolce upbeat figures now alternate between violas and oboes (hinting at D major).  The bassoons enter with supporting harmony.   The descent comes from flutes and oboes, with the first flute and first oboe playing the five-note turn figure.  The piccolo joins for the higher statement and cadence in A major.  The higher level necessitates a downward shift in register at the very end, resulting in a somewhat different effect from the exposition statement.
5:15 [m. 340]--Analogous to 1:36 [m. 104].  String oscillations with exuberant upbeat-downbeat figures from the winds, then reiterations of the cadence decorated by trills.  The winds again move to a steady marching pattern, mostly in unison, against upbeat-downbeat figures from the strings, culminating in rising figures against descents and trills with rapidly diminishing volume
5:23 [m. 351]--Analogous to 1:46 [m. 115].  Reiteration of rising third (C-sharp-E), with the same pattern of held harmonies and fast leaps up and down, punctuated by string trills.  The volume diminishes to pianissimo and beyond.  The cellos and basses descend from A to E.
5:29 [m. 358]--Closing material based on rondo theme, analogous to 1:52 [m. 122].  The horns, being tuned in E, are less ideal for the statement of the variant in A, at least on their own.  Instead, it is played by bassoons with the first horn.  The cellos and basses accompany with half-steps on E and D-sharp.  The piccolo and oboe play the continuation, as they did before.  The violas and cellos move to downward-arching triplets, as before, with the basses plucking E’s.
5:37 [m. 366]--Analogous to 2:00 [m. 130].  The bassoons and horn begin the rondo theme variant, joined by oboes at the new turning figure.  The clarinets in octaves now play the continuation instead of the piccolo and oboe.  There are new harmonies from bassoons and punctuation from the horns.  At the decorated turn figure, the first horn doubles the clarinets.  From that point, there is deviation from the exposition merging into the very brief coda.  The reiterations leading to the opening “signal” are omitted.
5:44 [m. 373]--Coda.  The deviation into this breathless coda begins with a new syncopated figure from the clarinets and horn, which is immediately repeated with the oboes joining in.  The flutes now join as the syncopated figure is played three more times in a rising sequence that builds strongly, the horn moving back to the punctuation.  The downward-arching triplets continue in violas and cellos, as does the persistent plucked E in the basses, which descends to D against the last syncopated figure.
5:48 [m. 378]--The piccolo joins as the buildup reaches forte, and the syncopated figure is developed into a joyous chromatic descent with chords in bassoons and horns.  The triplets in violas and cellos change to upward-turning patterns, and the basses, now bowed, are more active.  The buildup in volume continues.  The chromatic descent is followed by a downward-winding figure, then an upward leap of a seventh and a full repetition of the pattern.  This leads to three bars of powerful fortissimo quarter-note cadential wind chords against the continuing turning patterns from violas and cellos, the basses holding firm on E.
5:58 [m. 389]--The chords in all instruments move to upbeat-downbeat patterns except for the piccolo, which plays two high trills to connect the chords.  The piccolo, whose sound has been vital for the character of this finale, is joined by violas and cellos on a longer trill against three straight E-major chords leading to the very high A-major cadence.  This cadence is reiterated by two lower chords, a short one with C-sharp in the top voices and finally a held chord with A (an octave lower than the initial cadence) in the top voices.
6:13--END OF MOVEMENT [396 mm.]