VIOLIN SONATA NO. 3 in D MINOR, OP.
Recording: Itzhak Perlman, violin and Daniel Barenboim, piano
(live performance) [Sony SK 45819]
1889. Dedicated to “his friend” Hans von Bülow.
The third sonata
for violin and piano is, unlike the previous
two, in four movements. It
was the next chamber work to follow the trilogy of 1887 (which
included the second sonata, Op. 100).
A work of extreme concision and drama, it contrasts starkly
with the other two sonatas. The structures are so lean
and direct that, despite the “extra” movement, the sonata is
no longer than the others. Although in many ways
recalling the passionate exuberance of some of Brahms’s
youthful works, its economy of means and direct argument
create a work that is a fine example of the latest
style. The structure is somewhat similar to that of the
third piano trio, Op. 101, which
also has brief middle movements, a dramatic, tightly
constructed first movement, and an intense scherzo-like
finale. The first movement begins almost in
mid-thought, with no preliminaries to the tragic, insistent
main theme. Its development section is particularly
remarkable, being completely built over a constantly and
regularly reiterated single note. The second movement is
an instrumental song of great beauty that almost seems too
short. The third movement is similar to other
“intermezzo” types Brahms often placed in this position.
It manages to maintain a secretive playfulness despite its
minor key. The finale gives the impression of being
romantic and unrestrained, but indeed, it is just as carefully
and economically constructed as the rest of the sonata.
As in the other two violin sonatas, the first movement has no
The recording used in this guide was made from a 1989 live
performance in Chicago.
FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut
Lübeck--includes violin part)
SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition [monochrome] from Berlin
State Library [Staatsbibliothek]--includes violin part)
SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche
Werke (higher resolution)--does not include violin part)
FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke (lower
resolution)--includes violin part)
Movement: Allegro (Sonata-Allegro form). D MINOR, Cut
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme
1. A highly dramatic tune in the violin that almost
seems to start in mid-thought. It begins with a rising
leap of a fourth followed by a turn figure. A long-short
figure in the third measure (with a very short “short” note)
will become important throughout the movement. Against
this, the piano plays restless notes alternating between
hands, beginning with a distinctive descending figure in wide
octaves. The opening is marked sotto voce, giving the entire theme an
unusually quiet intensity. The piano deviates from, then
returns to, the two-octave distance between the hands.
0:15 [m. 12]--Chords
in triplet rhythm now alternate with syncopated octaves in the
piano (the previous alternation between the hands). The
triplet chords then take over completely. The violin
melody continues and reaches a cadence in A minor/major after
a brief return of the opening gesture.
0:35 [m. 25]--Transition.
begins with sudden loud chords and then develops the opening
gesture in both instruments. The “long-very short”
figure gains prominence over quick piano arpeggios (with the
two hands “staggered”).
0:48 [m. 34]--Powerful
two-note descending gestures in both instruments propel the
transition forward. The piano left hand plays more
isolated ascending broken octaves while the right hand
decorates its descending gestures with chords and faster
intervening notes. The gestures reverse direction, then
the violin drops out, leaving the piano to cascade downward to
a half-cadence in F.
0:57 [m. 40]--The
closing gesture of the transition passage is played by the
violin and piano in F minor, accompanied by wide-ranging
arpeggios and then syncopated chords. The arching
figures of this gesture will play a role in the context of
1:09 [m. 48]--Theme
2. A lyrical melody in the piano with strong accents on
weak parts of beats. The left-hand accompaniment
includes wide-ranging leaps, and there are many prominent
rolled chords (F Major).
1:23 [m. 56]--The
“closing gesture” of the transition passage (from 0:57 [m.
40]) interrupts the lyrical theme. The violin the enters
1:33 [m. 62]--Theme 2
is now taken by the violin over continuing piano
figuration. It is slightly expanded and reaches a climax
with strong syncopation, which then recedes as the tune
arrives at a full cadence.
1:52 [m. 74]--Closing
material. At the cadence, the “closing gesture” from the
transition now serves as a closing theme for the
exposition. While now in F major, it retains the
distinctive flattened sixth degree from the minor mode.
It is divided between the violin and piano, which also plays
an accompaniment of quick arpeggios in a triplet rhythm,
alternating descents and ascents. The exposition closes
with a distinct cadence with violin double stops, and Brahms
even marks a light double bar in the score.
Brahms sets the entire development section over a constantly
repeated low A (called a “pedal point”) at the same quiet
level. A pedal point on A implies a motion to D (the
home key), and the longer it is sustained, the greater the
tension and anticipation for that motion grows.
2:07 [m. 84]--The
pedal point on a low A begins in piano bass. The violin
plays another sotto voce
version of Theme 1 in the home key (D minor). It incorporates
the piano bass line from the beginning in a sort of
“oscillation” between the two elements (the tune and the
original piano line) on two strings. The piano right
hand enters after two bars in a sort of “counterpoint” that
begins its motion in direct harmony with the violin, but then
moves to the turn figure from Theme 1. The violin spins
out new material from the theme.
2:20 [m. 92]--The
“long-very short” figure is developed in the violin while the
piano right hand plays ominous arpeggios in the middle range
of the instrument, including a few double notes. The
passage is centered around A minor and major.
2:26 [m. 96]--Restatement
of the preceding version of Theme 1 and the following
developmental passage at a higher level (A minor). The
piano right hand participates with its “counterpoint” from the
outset of this statement. The harmony is altered
before 2:38 [m. 104].
2:38 [m. 104]--The
“long-very short” figure is heard in the piano left hand over
the pedal point. The violin and the piano right hand
take over the arpeggios and “oscillations,” playing mostly in
thirds with each other. The harmony is less stable than
at 2:20 [m. 92], moving again to D (but major) and then to E
2:44 [m. 108]--There
is a brief respite from the active motion. Three longer
descending notes in the violin are played, then repeated at a
lower level. The piano right hand continues the steady,
constant arpeggios. The key moves closer to home, going
through F major and again D major.
2:51 [m. 112]--The
“long-very short” figure is again heard from the violin.
The harmony moves from F-sharp minor to A major as the piano
arpeggios (now again including double notes) and pedal point
2:57 [m. 116]--A long
re-transition passage begins, using the three descending notes
from 2:44 [m. 108] and then the descending piano bass figure
from the beginning of the movement (now in the “upper” voice
of the oscillating two-string violin motion). The piano
arpeggios become more repetitive, then they slow down to a
wide triplet rhythm. The tension and anticipation for
the repeated A’s to resolve to D is now at its height as the
development section quietly settles to its close. The
violin drops out, and the constant motion of the piano right
hand is finally broken up into four isolated two-note
3:20 [m. 130]--The end
of the long pedal point and the beginning of the reprise
almost sneak upon us, as the sotto voce mood continues. It is
similar to the opening of the movement, but the broken octaves
of the piano are replaced by a more even and smooth motion in
both hands, which move together, but not in octaves. The
anticipated resolution to D minor is not completely confirmed
until the second measure.
3:36 [m. 141]--The
triplet chords from 0:15 [m. 12] are heard in the piano left
hand. The right hand, rather than participating in the
triplet chords, plays arpeggio groups against them in a
four-against-three conflict. At first, these arpeggio
groups ascend, but when the triplet chords take over as they
had in the exposition, the arpeggio groups descend. The
music moves to the cadence in A minor/major, as in the
3:57 [m. 154]--The
transition passage begins as in the exposition at 0:35 [m.
25], but immediately moves in a new harmonic direction,
arriving on F-sharp minor.
4:03 [m. 157]--A new,
forceful passage first heard in descending piano octaves is
incorporated into the transition. It continues to
incorporate the turn figure from the beginning of Theme
1. The three-sharp key signature of A major and F-sharp
minor is used. The entire transition is expanded to the
point where the “long-very short” figure is heard over the
“staggered” piano arpeggios.
4:24 [m. 172]--The
powerful descents are heard as at 0:48 [m. 34]. The
transition now follows its course to a half cadence in the
home key of D (instead of the F of the exposition).
4:32 [m. 178]--Closing
gesture of the transition passage as at 0:57 [m. 40], now in D
4:45 [m. 186]--Theme 2
in a direct transposition to D major
5:00 [m. 194]--The
closing gesture of the transition passage interrupts, as at
1:23 [m. 56]. The violin enters in counterpoint.
5:09 [m. 200]--Theme 2
in the violin over continuing piano figuration as at 1:33 [m.
62]. The piano figuration is somewhat altered from the
exposition. A shorter statement than in the exposition,
it does not reach a full cadence, but is interrupted earlier
by the closing gesture as it hints at F major.
5:23 [m. 208]--As in
the exposition at 1:52 [m. 74], the closing gesture is divided
between violin and piano, and the piano also plays the quick
triplet-rhythm accompaniment, now all in ascents rather than
alternating ascents and descents. Rather than settling
to a cadence, however, it goes the other direction and builds,
culminating in the forceful descending passage from the new
transition (from 4:03 [m. 157]).
5:38 [m. 218]--Unlike
the exposition, the recapitulation is rounded with another
nearly full statement of Theme 1, now aggressive and
dynamic. The descending piano line, broken between the
hands as at the beginning, is now in full harmony.
5:54 [m. 229]--The
triplet chords enter as expected, but the statement of Theme 1
is truncated at this point and quickly diminishes in volume as
it approaches the familiar cadence, now in the home key of D
instead of A (as at 0:15 [m. 12] and 3:36 [m. 141]).
6:07 [m. 236]--The
final cadence of the recapitulation merges into the coda,
which, surprisingly, mirrors the development section. A
new pedal point begins, but now it is on D instead of A.
The two-string oscillation between Theme 1 and the opening
bass line is heard, as at the opening of the development,
along with the entry of the right-hand counterpoint and the
turn figure (now also heard in the piano bass). The
passage follows the beginning of the development somewhat
closely, but does not incorporate the “long-very short”
figure. Also, the pedal point on the keynote D does not
have the sense of tension and anticipation as the one on A
6:28 [m. 248]--The
piano right hand now plays gentle double notes (sixths) in
both the major and minor modes. The three descending
notes from the end of the development section at 2:44 [m. 108]
are heard in the violin in two descending sequential
6:39 [m. 254]--The
music slows on a descending violin line. The pedal point
is broken and the bass note moves as two anticipatory rests
are reached in both instruments.
6:51 [m. 258]--The
closing measures magically transform the opening gesture of
Theme 1. The initial rising fourth swells in volume and
the following turn figure is heard three times, each an octave
lower than the last. These are passed down the strings
and dovetail each other while settling back down to a quiet
dynamic. They continue to suggest D minor as the full
harmonies of the piano (beginning with strong syncopation)
move to D major.
Resolution finally arrives as the piano plays a slow D major
arpeggio in triplet rhythm under three repeated low A’s from
the violin. The final major chord is very serene.
7:23--END OF MOVEMENT [264
2nd Movement: Adagio
(Binary form, with statement and expanded
counterstatement). D MAJOR, 3/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme
1. A beautiful, rich melody played in the violin’s lower
register. The melody is characterized by a long note
followed by three shorter ones. The piano plays steadily
on each beat of the slow triple meter. The left hand is
largely in octaves. Near the first cadence, it becomes
mildly syncopated, tying two chords over bar lines. At
the weak cadence, the piano imitates the violin.
0:45 [m. 13]--The
continuation of the melody moves strongly to A major (already
suggested at the end of the preceding passage). The
piano becomes more active, adding an moving internal voice
that harmonizes with the bass. The piano bass has a bar
line-crossing syncopation at the cadence.
1:08 [m. 19]--Theme 2
(A major). The strong cadence merges into an upward
winding passage from the violin over two-note piano
descents. It rapidly increases in volume and culminates
in a very warm descending series of minor-tinged double-stop
thirds in the violin against rolled chords in the piano.
The music quickly settles back down.
1:29 [m. 25]--Transitional
The violin’s double-stop thirds merge into a repeated
neighbor-note figure in a dotted rhythm. The piano plays
a three-chord figure with the first chord leaping down to a
repeated chord. This is similar to its
accompaniment pattern at the opening of the movement.
1:43 [m. 29]--The
violin and piano reverse roles. The piano has the dotted
rhythm, now in chords, and the violin plays three-note
downward leaps similar to the piano’s chords. There
follows a hemiola,
with the leaping violin line and the piano chords
grouped as if two 3/8 bars were a single 3/4 bar. The
piano alone then uses both elements to lead back to D major
for the counterstatement.
2:14 [m. 37]--Theme
1. The piano right hand now doubles the violin in the
melody while the left hand plays detached arpeggios in triplet
rhythm (three notes to a beat). The statement is
significantly stronger than the opening of the movement.
Doubling ends after four measures, and the music becomes more
quiet. A small expansion happens right before the first
weak cadence, which is now in G major instead of D.
2:45 [m. 47]--The
passage from 0:45 [m. 13] is abbreviated, now only serving to
quickly reconfirm D major after the weak cadence in G.
The triplet arpeggios in the left hand become spaced out by a
beat and then stop. The piano bass has the bar
line-crossing syncopation previously heard before Theme 2.
2:59 [m. 51]--Theme 2
(D major). The strong cadence is analogous to that at
1:08 [m. 19], leading to a statement of the upward rising
passage with piano descents and the descending double thirds
with rolled chords, all now in the home key.
3:20 [m. 57]--The
transition is now replaced by a passage of
intensification. A winding figure in the violin, played
over piano chords with the hands in contrary motion, gains
intensity and speed, culminating in an expanded, rapturous
statement of the descending double thirds without the
minor-key flavor. This is the climax of the movement,
and arrives over faster arpeggios and low bass octaves in the
piano. The descending thirds and the piano arpeggios
slowly settle down.
3:39 [m. 63]--A new
transitional passage emerges, consisting of oscillating leaps
and double sixths in the violin against arpeggio fragments and
low bass broken octaves in the piano. A violin trill
leads into the final Theme 1 statement.
3:55 [m. 67]--Final
statement of Theme 1. Only the first two measures are
heard before the final, resonant piano chords (which rise to
the high register before the two last lower chords) and low
violin notes The violin has a long double stop over the
rising piano chords, then “pre-emphasizes” the cadence on the
final notes with an anticipatory grace note.
4:42--END OF MOVEMENT [75
3rd Movement: Un poco
presto e con sentimento (Ternary form, with middle
section derived from main material). F-SHARP MINOR,
0:00 [m. 1]--The
opening gesture in piano octaves provides most material for
this monothematic movement. The two repeated notes, the
jump up a third and back to them, and the descending
three-note figure created when that third is filled in are the
important elements. Violin double stops punctuate the
gesture, mostly on weak beats. The music is secretive
0:04 [m. 5]--The
opening gesture is modified to wind down to a lower pitch
0:07 [m. 9]--The two
repeated notes continue to develop. A rapidly descending
piano arpeggio is heard, and the left hand of the piano,
nearly absent until now, begins to assert itself with
punctuating chords and octaves that are heard together with
the violin double stops.
0:14 [m. 17]--The
descending piano arpeggio is adapted to longer descending
notes in the violin, which finally abandons its punctuating
double stops. After two statements of this phrase with
different harmonies, a cadence in C-sharp minor is reached.
0:21 [m. 26]--A brief
piano bridge with short-long descents and detached bass
octaves brings the music back home to F-sharp minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--Varied
statement of the entire passage to the C-sharp minor
cadence. The violin now takes the lead with the figures
previously heard in piano octaves. The piano plays light
arpeggios, first descending and later ascending, where the
violin double stops had been. The left hand introduces a
strong descending scale figure in detached notes.
0:38 [m. 45]--Corresponds
to 0:14 [m. 17]. Here, the violin resumes its original
role where it had previously abandoned the double stops.
The piano now plays upward instead of downward sweeping
arpeggios as the C-sharp minor cadence is reached.
0:45 [m. 54]--The
brief piano bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] is replaced with a
suddenly animated transition passage in which the violin and
piano both play arpeggios, erupt in triplet rhythm, and move
harmonically toward D minor.
0:54 [m. 65]--A sudden
and almost violent series of violin triple stops and off-beat
piano chords leads to a strong cadence in A minor.
0:57 [m. 70]--The
triple stops and piano chords are followed by a more urgent
statement of the main gesture in A minor, heard from the piano
under longer violin double stops. The violin figures
emerge into a line that runs in counterpoint to the main
melody in the piano.
1:03 [m. 76]--The
passage from 0:45 [m. 54] is adapted with some directional
changes and instrument role reversals. It now moves
toward B-flat minor.
1:12 [m. 87]--The
passage from 0:54 [m. 65] is adapted with the instruments
reversing roles and moving to a cadence in F minor (B-flat--F
is analogous to D--A).
1:15 [m. 91]--Urgent
statement of the main gesture, as at 0:57 [m. 70], now in F
minor. The violin now has the gesture itself in double
stops (continuing the role reversal from 1:12 [m. 87]), and
the piano plays flowing triplets, ascending in the left hand
and descending in the right.
1:21 [m. 98]--An
upward piano arpeggio in double notes suddenly shifts to
major, decreases in volume, and leads to a surprisingly tender
violin statement of the main gesture in F major. The
piano plays an equally gentle adaptation of the descending
three-note figure from that gesture three times under the
violin until that instrument plays it in its “original”
position. There, the piano moves to a more directly
harmonizing role before a cadence.
1:30 [m. 106]--The
re-transition uses the three-note descending figure to move
first back to F minor and then to the home key of F-sharp
minor. The violin leads back home over slow piano chords
and long bass notes, and then the piano plays a final, highly
expressive and chromatic bridge (taking over from a violin
descent), all over a slowing tempo.
1:47 [m. 119]--Restatement
of the opening music, with the violin double stops now played
2:01 [m. 135]--Corresponds
at the beginning to 0:14 [m. 17] and 0:38 [m. 45]. The
violin takes the bow again for its descending figure.
The passage is altered (specifically the second statement of
the phrase) to cadence at home in F-sharp minor rather than
2:08 [m. 144]--The
material of the piano bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] leads into a
passionate extension of the F-sharp minor cadence in violin
double stops and sweeping piano arpeggios. This
extension quiets as the piano's notes become longer (triplet
2:20 [m. 155]--The
violin’s restatement of the main section from 0:25 [m. 29] is
replaced by an atmospheric coda. That instrument muses
extensively on the opening repeated notes entirely in double
stops as the piano plays light arpeggio fragments and isolated
bass notes. There are two waves of this material, each
one very slightly increasing in intensity before backing off.
2:34 [m. 169]--The
double stops are briefly abandoned at the end of the second
“wave” as the violin approaches an arpeggio flourish that
matches the light piano arpeggios. The piano arpeggios
themselves soar upward and drop out as the violin reaches the
top and then descends.
2:40 [m. 175]--The
violin resumes double stops for final cadence. The
piano’s final downward flourish under a sustained violin
double stop includes the descending bass scale figure from
0:25 [m. 29], now broken over five octaves. Two quiet
clinching rolled chords have their top notes doubled by the
2:48--END OF MOVEMENT [181
4th Movement: Presto
agitato (Sonata-Rondo form). D MINOR, 6/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--In the
brief, but powerful introduction, the piano anticipates the
main theme with full chords and bass octaves while the violin
has a rapidly oscillating line that seems to be almost “sawed”
with the bow.
0:04 [m. 5]--Theme
1. A soaring, dramatic violin line is played against
oscillating piano chords similar to the violin “sawing” at the
beginning. The bass has broken octaves in consistent
groupings of three notes with an up-down motion. The
theme consists of an initial downward leap in longer notes
followed by an arching line. This is given twice, the
second time reaching higher in the arching line. The
D-minor melody has a strong pull toward A minor.
0:10 [m. 13]--The
introduction is repeated beginning a fourth higher and ending
with a new, stronger half-cadence.
0:14 [m. 17]--Transition.
figures are passed between the piano and violin. They
are interrupted twice by loud outbursts of the head motive
from Theme 1, also passed from piano to violin. After
the second interruption, the music of the “galloping” figures
makes a strong turn to A minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--A third
outburst of the Theme 1 music is extended by a descent in the
piano right hand. This descent in duple rhythm goes
against the prevailing 6/8 flow. The piano line
diminishes to soft chords, and the violin enters with soft
double stops. Two descending low piano notes lead to
0:35 [m. 39]--Theme 2
(C major/A minor). A noble melody in richly harmonized
piano chords with an active bass. The theme, which
begins in C major, makes a very dark turn toward E minor
before the violin makes a brief entrance. The following
chords trail down and strongly suggest a cadence in E minor
that does not arrive.
0:52 [m. 55]--In a
sudden and unprepared return to C major, averting the expected
E-minor cadence, the violin repeats and varies the theme over
continuing rich piano chords that become more and more
syncopated. Through an alteration incorporating a new
rising leap, the violin redirects the dark turn so that it
will work toward A minor rather than E minor. This
statement swells and recedes, and the A- minor cadence is
interrupted, then delayed with tension-filled, breathless
rests before the hushed arrival.
1:09 [m. 73]--Closing
section (A minor). It begins with quietly running piano
figures that wind upward, then come rapidly down in an
arpeggio. The music continues with passionate material
derived from Theme 1. The piano has low bass octaves
that seem to march upward while the right hand plays
undulating up-down figures under the violin’s melodic line.
The motion is temporarily somewhat arrested by questioning
violin gestures with short piano responses in rising thirds
with octave and chord support.
1:19 [m. 84]--The
passionate melody begins again in the violin, cutting off the
questioning gestures a bar earlier than expected. The
piano imitates the melody after one last rising third figure
under the violin entry. The piano then takes over the
actual melody and the violin continues in anticipatory, rather
than imitative counterpoint. The up-down figures move to
the left hand. The melody is extended and intensified,
culminating in the piano’s statements of the “questioning
gestures” with violin imitation a fifth higher.
1: 30 [m. 96]--The
closing section continues with syncopated chords on weak
beats. The violin joins the piano on these exciting
syncopations, which begin quietly and rapidly increase in
volume and tension. The piano left hand has broken
octaves on the strong beats. After a series of octave
leaps, the syncopations culminate in two strong cadence
gestures that continue to obscure the beat. These are
echoed by the piano without the violin.
1:41 [m. 108]--Music
from the opening of the closing section at 1:09 [m. 73]
returns with the piano imitating, then doubling the
violin. It is extended and metrically displaced.
The material is abruptly cut off after the descending
DEVELOPMENT (Restatement and expansion of Theme 1 material).
1:46 [m. 114]--Brief
introduction from the beginning starting in A minor, then
shifting abruptly at the end to the home key of D minor.
1:49 [m. 118]--Theme
1, as at 0:04 [m. 5], with very slight, subtle alterations to
the piano part, including a new low bass broken octave at the
second statement of the melodic line.
1:56 [m. 126]--Repetition
of introduction a fourth higher, as at 0:10 [m. 13], but it is
extended by four abruptly quiet, isolated middle-range piano
chords in the second half of each bar.
2:05 [m. 134]--An
expressive variant of Theme 1 begins in G minor. It has
fewer notes and is accompanied by continuing isolated
mid-range piano chords on the weak half of the bar. The
violin melody starts to become syncopated, and slides upward.
2:13 [m. 142]--The
expressive statement dissolves into a long passage of
syncopation in the violin with theme fragments in the
piano. It begins in B-flat minor.
2:19 [m. 148]--The
piano right hand abandons the expressive theme fragments and
joins the violin in an extended, highly syncopated passage
with most notes coming on the “weakest” beats. The left
hand now plays theme fragments in octaves in C-sharp
minor. There is then a turn to E major.
2:29 [m. 156]--The
syncopated passage continues without theme fragments.
The music intensifies, with the violin climbing chromatically
(in half-steps) then jumping an octave and continuing the
ascent. The half-steps are broken twice by skips.
The bass octaves and the violin ascent are no longer
syncopated, but the right hand chords retain the heavy
syncopation. The harmony is unstable, and moves through
F-sharp minor and A major before turning back to
C-sharp/D-flat. Finally, it reaches F minor.
2:39 [m. 168]--The
violin ascent speeds up, joins the piano on the heavy
syncopation, and moves purely by half-steps until it reaches
an oscillation on a very high F and G-flat. There is a
2:43 [m. 172]--The
syncopated passage culminates in a high statement of Theme 1
with a clashing duple rhythm in the piano octaves. It
reaches a strong cadence in F minor.
2:46 [m. 176]--There
is now more syncopation in an extremely agitated passage
beginning in F minor and closing the development section
(which has been entirely devoted to Theme 1). The violin
plays a passionate line against rushing, perpetually moving
piano figuration. The music is somewhat reminiscent of
the transition passage from the exposition, into which it
2:56 [m. 187]--The
agitated passage continues, wrenching itself to the home key
of D, here in a major/minor mixture. It flows directly
into the transition passage, picking up from the presentation
of Theme 1 at the beginning of the development section.
3:02 [m. 194]--Transition
with galloping figures, as at 0:14 [m. 17]. They now
have fuller harmony. The first statement of the Theme 1
outburst is the same as in the exposition. The second
one is altered, reaching higher so that the music can remain
in the home key of D minor.
3:13 [m. 206]--The
third outburst of the Theme 1 music (from 0:25 [m. 29]) is
replaced with further intensification of the galloping figures
and a two-bar extension with a fully harmonized ascending
piano arpeggio. This leads to the right hand descent in
duple meter as previously heard before Theme 2. Soft
chords and double stops follow, and the two low bass notes
lead into Theme 2.
3:25 [m. 218]--Theme
2. The noble melody and chords begin in F major
(“relative” to D minor) and make the “dark turn” to A
minor. The violin enters briefly, as it had
before. The trailing chords suggest a cadence in A minor
that is aborted, as was the E-minor arrival in the exposition.
3:41 [m. 234]--In an
unprepared return to F major, the violin repeats and varies
the second theme over continuing piano chords, which become
syncopated, as at 0:52 [m. 55]. The “dark turn” now
arrives in D minor (the home key). The cadence is
interrupted and delayed with rests, as it was before, and
reaches a hushed arrival.
3:58 [m. 252]--Closing
section, as at 1:09 [m. 73] with running piano figures,
passionate violin melody, and questioning gestures with piano
responses. It is now in the home key of D minor.
4:08 [m. 263]--The
passionate melody begins again in the violin, imitated by the
piano, as at 1:19 [m. 84]. The piano again plays the
actual melody with expansion, intensification, and statements
of the “questioning gestures.”
4:19 [m. 275]--The
closing section continues with syncopated chords, as at 1:30
[m. 96]. They again arrive at two strong cadence
gestures from the violin, which are then echoed by the piano.
4:30 [m. 287]--Music
from opening of the closing section returns, as at 1:41 [m.
108]. It is extended and metrically displaced, then cut
off after the arpeggio.
4:35 [m. 293]--Brief
introduction, as at very beginning.
4:39 [m. 297]--A very
passionate statement of Theme 1, with altered accompaniment in
the second statement. The broken octaves are replaced by
more solid straight octaves, and the right hand chords are
also changed somewhat. The second statement is extended
by a large scale descent, beginning with the violin. The
piano enters in harmony with the descending violin scale, then
adds a double third harmony to its own scale, creating full
chords with the violin line. The piano scales are
doubled in both hands.
4:47 [m. 307]--Final
statement of the “brief introduction,” beginning on B-flat,
but moving quickly to the harmonies as heard in the statement
at 0:10 [m. 13] with the strong half-cadence.
4:51 [m. 311]--Another
extremely agitated passage begins with a huge piano arpeggio
doubled in two, then three octaves and turning back
down. The music of the “galloping” transition follows,
and then the huge arpeggio is repeated.
4:57 [m. 317]--Solid
descending chords lead to more of the “galloping” transition
material, still in an extremely agitated, passionate
presentation and including some chromatic notes.
5:04 [m. 325]--The
music suddenly becomes broad and sustained, with Theme 1 in
the piano bass and then the violin. The piano right hand
has the familiar chord and single note oscillations. The
violin statement of the Theme 1 material is extended downward,
and the music both slows down and becomes quiet to maximize
the effect of the coming dramatic gesture.
5:15 [m. 331]--The
final flourish enters suddenly, and is based on the transition
material. The piano shoots upward in harmonized
arpeggios, which dovetail with violin continuations. A
rapid descending piano arpeggio, with a punctuating violin
chord and final note (D), closes the movement in the stern
minor key in which it began.
5:23--END OF MOVEMENT [337
END OF SONATA
APPLAUSE TO END OF TRACK AT 5:45
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